ТОП 10:

Г latter must be lower than the former since it only includes the




value of the goods, transportation and other expenses until the goods are on board vessel. On rob and cif terms the Sellers bear the risk of accidendal loss of or damage to the goods until the goods pass the

ship's rail.

Other terms of delivery that may be used in foreign trade are:

1) EXW - free on works (ex works, ex mill, ex factory), which means
delivery of the goods from the factory gates of the Sellers, with all
charges thereafter to be paid by the Buyers and the risk of
accidental damage to or loss of the goods to be borne by them.
Similar terms are ex mine - free on mine and free on plantation.
Also ex warehouse - free on Sellers' warehouse. The above terms
are applied in our foreign trade practice very seldom.

2) FOR - free on rail (FOC - free on car, FOT - free on truck),
which means that the Sellers pay all charges up to and including
the placing of the goods on a railway train (in cars or on trucks).
The risk of accidental damage to or loss of the goods passes when
the goods have been entrusted to the carrier.


3) FAS ■ free alongside ship, which means that the Sellers pay for all
the charges up to and including the placing of the goods alongside
ship (on the quay where the ship is docked), but does not pay for
loading. The risk passes when the goods have been effectively
placed alongside the vessel in the named port of shipment.

4) CAF - cost and freight (C& F), which means that the Sellers
undertake to pay for the cost of transport of the goods to a
specified destination having allowed for this in their sales prise
The risk passes when the goods have crossed the ship's rail at the
port of loading. If the goods are carried by liners, the Sellers have I
to unload them at the port of destination for their account. If nol
by liners, the counterparts may agree to this effect, then it is
indicated "C& F landed".


5) Ex ship with port of destination indicated, which means that the
Sellers pay for all charges up to and including the placing of the
goods at the disposal of the Buyers on board the vessel at the port
of destination. The risk passes accordingly.

6) Ex quay with port of destination indicated, which means that ал
compared with the previous terms, the Sellers pay for unloading thr
goods and the risk does not pass until the goods are placed on the
quay in the port of destination.

7) In the revised Incoterms, 1980 some new clauses have been in
traduced: "Free carrier (named point)". The clause has been
designed with regard being given to modern forms of carriage, such
as multimodal transports with containers, or roll-on, roll-off traffu
with trailers. The new clause is based on the same principles as the
old FOB clause, but there is an important distinction in that thr
risk passes from the Sellers to the Buyers at the place where thr
goods have been delivered to the contracting carrier. Thus the ves
sel's rail will no longer play a decisive role in this respect when thr
new clause is used. Similarly "Freight or carriage (sometime»
written "freightcarriage") and insurance paid to "or" Freight oi
carriage paid to" may be substituted for the old CIF and C& Г
clauses respectively in cases where container or trailer traffic li


The choice of the terms of delivery and the terms of payment as •

rule remains with the Buyers, so they can insist, while negotiate и

a contract, on choosing those which they find most suitable for them. When choosing the terms of delivery, for instance, the Buyers should be guided by the availability or absence of transportation facilities and by the interests of their country as in the case with the Soviet state since payment for both the Insurance Policy and the Charter Party made with our corresponding organizations ("Ingosstrakh" and "Sovfracht") remains within the boundaries of our country.

Terms of delivery (Базисные условия)

I. ex works (EXW), ex mill, ex factory (free on works) - франко за­вод с завода продавца

ex mine (free on mine) - франко шахта, "с шахты" free on plantation - франко плантация

ex warehouse (free on Sellers'warehouse) - франко "склад продав­ца", со склада

free on rail (FOR), free on car (FOK), free on truck (FOT) -франко вагон, свободно на станции отправления

1 free alongside ship (FAS) - свободно вдоль борта судна I CAF (C&F) - cost and freight - стоимость и фрахт (КАФ) С & F landed - КАФ с выгрузкой

Ex ship, with port of destination indicated - с судна, с указанием порта назначения

Ex quay, with port of destination indicated - с причала, с указани­ем порта назначения

Free carrier (FRO (named port)'or (named point) - ФРК (свобод­но у перевозчика (в названном порту/пункте) Freight or carriage and insurance paid to - перевозка и страхова­ние оплачены до Freight or carriage paid to - перевозка оплачена до


I Прочтите текст 7А и найдите эквиваленты следующих предложений исловосочета-

I» Начнем со срока поставки? 2) Чем скорее, тем лучше. 3) Это бу-

г трудновато 4) А как насчет остальной части заказа? 5) Тогда

^^Кем к условиям платежа? 6) Продолжим переговоры? 7) А

е - к посевной. 8) Пожалуйста. 9) Это поздновато. 10) О, ^^Нвсно. 11) Вот и мы подкрепленные и сильные. 12) Возьмем ^Нва рога. 13) По-моему, следующий вопрос - условия платежа. 14) Нам нужны все трактора не позднее конца марта. 15) Вы имее-р и виду: "Успеха добиваются сильные?" 16) Когда вам нужны ктора: 17) Давайте отложим этот вопрос до завтра. 18) Не бу-ходить вокруг да около. 19) Вы собираетесь предоставлять нам цит? 20) Когда они будут подлежать оплате? 21) Спорить ведь 1меет смысла? 22) Тогда пошли (отправляемся). 23) Она (столо-совсем неплохая, я вас уверяю. 24) Я не знал, что я так голо-25) Это будет составной частью контракта. 26) Мы бы предпо-тратты со сроком платежа в 90 и более дней. 27) И притом в псанских долларах. 28) Пошли?


П. Прочтите текст 7А и ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. Why do you think Mr.Cramer prefers to start the talks with the time
of delivery?

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