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CHILDHOOD INFECTIOUS DISEASES



Many of the most known diseases of childhood – chickenpox, measles, and mumps – are highly infectious diseases that can be passed easily from person to person. Some of these diseases are very serious indeed.

The diagnosis of these diseases is made on the basis of their characteristic symptoms and signs.

Measles. Its signs and symptoms are: fever, cough, sneezing, inflamed eyes, sore throat, tiny white spots on the lining of the cheek, and rash. Measles, also known as rubeola, is a common childhood illness, although adults also are susceptible. The virus that causes the disorder is transmitted by inhalation of infecting droplets such as from a sneeze. Measles is most contagious before the rash appears, making it difficult to avoid the disease. Until the rash disappears, you still can pass it to others. Once you have had measles, you are permanently immune and will not contract the disease again.

Whooping cough. Whooping cough primarily occurs in infants younger than 2 years. It is contracted by inhaling infected airborne droplets, often from an adult with mild case of the disease. The disease is most contagious early, but can be transmitted until the infection is completely cleared. The symptoms of this disease are: sneezing and nasal congestion, tearing, loss appetite, and cough.

Fever, weakness, and red, itchy rash are the signs of chickenpox. Chickenpox, also known as varicella, occurs primarily in children, although adults who are not immune can contract it. It is contagious and is spread by breathing in infected respiratory droplets or by unprotected direct contact with the rash when it has ruptured. In persons who have had chickenpox, the virus can cause shingles later in life.

Mumps is a childhood disease, but it can occur in adults. Its clinical name is epidemic parotitis. Its symptoms are the following: swollen, painful salivary glands, fever, weakness and fatigue, inflammation of the pancreas, testicles, ovaries, or brain. Mumps is caused by a virus and spread by inhalation of infected droplets. The affected person becomes contagious 1 day before the symptoms appear, is most contagious for another 3 days, and then becomes less contagious as the swelling goes down.

Diphtheria is an acute infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphthriae. It usually attacks the respiratory tract. Infection occurs by inhalation of airborne droplets exhaled by a person with the disease or by a carrier who has no symptoms – sore throat and hoarseness, nasal discharge, malaise and fever, thick gray membrane covering the throat and tonsils, and rapid pulse. The organism also can infect skin wounds or any mucous membrane.

Scarlet fever was once a common, serious childhood illness but now is quite rare. Caused by a specific type of streptococcal bacteria, scarlet fever usually begins suddenly with sore throat, fever, and chill. The bacteria produce a specific type of toxin that causes a rash. It usually disappears after 3 days, and the fever disappears. The tongue may be swollen for somewhat longer, but recovery usually is uneventful.

Ex. 8. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:

Найбільш відомі захворювання; вдих; інфекційний; доки не зникне висип; простуда; уникнути захворювання; бути викликаним вірусом; відчуття загального дискомфорту; заразитися; вражати дихальний тракт; досить рідкісний; розриватися; видихати; оперізуючий лишай; втома, втомлюваність; хрипота; зазвичай починається несподівано.

 

Ex. 9. Translate the text “Childhood Infectious Diseases” into Ukrainian.

 

Ex. 10. Insert the missing words:

1. The most common diseases of childhood are highly infectious _. 2. The virus of measles is transmitted by _ of infecting droplets. 3. Whooping cough is contracted by inhaling infected _. 4. Chickenpox is spread by unprotected direct contact with _. 5. The clinical name of _ is epidemic parotitis.

 

Ex. 11. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the most known diseases of childhood? 2. What is the diagnosis of infectious diseases made on? 3. What is measles? 4. What are the signs and symptoms of measles? 5. How is chickenpox spread? 6. What are the signs of mumps? 7. What is diphtheria? 8. What its symptoms do you know? 9. What childhood disease is quite rare now?

 

Ex. 12. Insert the missing prepositions:

1. Whooping cough occurs _ infants younger than 2 years. 2. It is contracted _inhaling infected airborne droplets. 3. The symptoms _ this disease are sneezing and nasal congestion, tearing, loss appetite, and cough. 4. Chickenpox occurs primarily _ children. 5. It is spread _ breathing in infected respiratory droplets or _ unprotected direct contact with the rash. 6. Mumps is a childhood disease, but it can occur _ adults. 7. Mumps is caused _ a virus and spread _ inhalation of infected droplets.

 

Ex. 13. Complete the following table:

Disease Symptoms
Measles Whooping cough Chickenpox Mumps Diphtheria Scarlet fever  

 





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