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Ex. 18. Write out key words of the text.



Ex. 19. Give a summary of the text "Skin".

Ex. 20. Speak on:

structure of the skin;

function of the skin.

 

Ex. 21. Read the following abstract and determine your skin type:

WHAT IS YOUR SKIN TYPE

The skin of your face is generally the best guide in classifying skin type. Examine your skin closely, especially the pores.

Oily Skin. Oily skin is caused by overactivity of the sebaceous glands. Oily skin is thick and has large pores. Oily skin has a greater tendency to develop acne (прищ) but not wrinkles. Most people with oily skin also have oily hair.

Dry Skin. Dry skin can be caused by underactivity of the sebaceous glands, environmental conditions, or normal aging. Dry skin is usually thinner and most easily irritated. It often is associated with dry hair and small pores. There is a greater tendency to develop wrinkles but not acne. Your skin tends to become drier as you age.

Balanced Skin. Balanced skin is neither oily nor dry. It is smooth and has a fine texture and few problems. However, it has a tendency to become dry as a result of environmental factors and aging.

Combination Skin.Combination skin consists of oily regions (often on the forehead and around the nose) and regions that are balanced or dry.

Ex. 22. Read and translate the following text:

SKIN DISORDERS

Because it is a complex organ constantly exposed to the elements, the skin is susceptible to various problems. The skin protects the body from the environment. It is surprisingly resistant to a wide variety of insults.

However, it may become irritated and inflamed, a condition called dermatitis. Its capillaries may become enlarged as a result on sunburn. So the term dermatitis simply means an inflammation of the skin. It has many causes. It may appear as contact dermatitis, prickly heat rash, atopic dermatitis, stasis dermatitis and some others.

Direct contact with one of a number of substances can cause a skin inflammation called contact dermatitis. The signs of it are redness and itching, blisters and weeping from the sores in severe cases, and skin changes limited to the area of contact with the causative agent. If the person is sensitive to material in a watchband or ring, his/her skin beneath the object can become inflamed. Red, sore eyelids can result from the use of certain cosmetic products or from touching the eyelids with other material on the fingers. In allergic dermatitis, the allergen may be something that the person has used for years with no problem. Mild chemicals such as hexachlorophene in soap and acetone n nail-polish remover can produce contact dermatitis. Treatment consists primarily of identifying the offending agent and avoiding it. Sometimes, some medicines or ointments are necessary.

The cause of psoriasis is unknown, although there may be a genetic predisposition that affects the life cycle of skin cells. Normally, it takes about a month for new cells to move from the lowest skin layer, where they are produced, to the outermost layer, where they die and scale off in tiny flakes. With psoriasis, however, the entire cycle takes only 3 or 4 days. As a result, dead cells accumulate rapidly, forming thick, silvery scales. If the scales scraped away, bleeding occurs from the blood vessels at the top of the dermal papillae. Psoriasis is a chronic disease that can be controlled but as yet has no cure.

Eczema describes an inflammatory condition of the skin. There are some forms of eczema. Cause of inflammation may be allergy, infection, poor circulation, or exposure to physical factors such as chemicals, heat, cold, or sunlight. The signs of this disorder are extreme, persistent itching and thickening of the skin in patches. Coal-tar ointments are often used when the condition has been present for months or years and the skin has become thickened. Corticosteroid creams and ointments are very useful in reducing the inflammation and itching.

 

OVERVIEW

The skin is a unique organ. It contains many specialized nerve endings for sensing heat, cold, and pain. In addition, skin contains numerous oil glands, hair follicles, and sweat glands. The skin protects the internal organs and serves as heat regulator. Capillaries and blood vessels in the skin dilate or constrict according to the body's temperature. The skin is composed of the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous tissue. The epidermis is the top layer. The outermost surface of the epidermis is made up of dead skin cells. Squamous cells lie just below the outer surface. Basal cells are at the bottom of the epidermis. The dermis, found beneath the epidermis, makes up 90 percent of the bulk of the skin. It is a dense layer of strong, white fibers and yellow, elastic fibers. This layer includes blood vessels, muscle cells, nerve fibers, lymph channels, hair follicles, and glands. The dermis gives strength and elasticity to the skin. Beneath the dermis the subcutaneous tissue lies. It is composed largely of fat through which blood vessels and nerves run.

 

 

LESSON 55

REVISION

Read and translate one of the following texts:

Text A

DISORDERS OF VISION

Disorders of vision affect various parts of the eye. Some disorders are the result of aging, a genetic tendency, or both. Such disorders include glaucoma (increased fluid pressure within the eye), cataract (clouding of the lens), and various retinal problems.

New techniques and medications for detecting and treating glaucoma and cataract have made these two leading causes of blindness very treatable. Today's modern surgical procedures make the treatment of cataracts among the most successful of all operations.

Cataract is a major cause of vision loss worldwide. Almost 20 million people are blind because of this condition. A cataract is a clouding of the normally clear lens of the eye. The clouding of the lens blocks the passage of light needed for sigh. Although a cataract often starts in only one eye, usually both become involved. Cataracts are accompanied by changes in the chemical composition of the lens, but the cause of these alterations is unknown. The signs of cataract are blurred vision, impaired vision at night or in very bright light, and halos around lights. A certain amount of lens clouding occurs in 65% of patient over the age of 50 and 95% of patients over the age of 65. The most effective treatment for cataract is surgical removal.

Glaucomais a group of diseases that can damage the eye's optic nerve and result in vision loss and blindness. However, the group has a single feature in common: progressive damage to the optic nerve due to increased pressure within the eyeball. The risk is much greater for people over 60. The symptoms of glaucoma are blurred vision, usually in one eye, halos appearing around lights, pain in the eye, and loss of peripheral vision. There are several different forms of glaucoma. In general the group of disease is divided into two ones, acute and chronic. Most of these involve the drainage system within the eye. At the front of the eye there is a small space called the Structure of Eye

the anterior chamber. A clear fluid flows through this chamber and bathes and nourishes the nearby tissues. In glaucoma, for still unknown reasons, the fluid drains too slowly out of the eye. As the fluid builds up, the pressure inside the eye rises. Unless this pressure is controlled, it may cause damage to the optic nerve and other parts of the eye and result in loss of vision. There is no cure for glaucoma. Vision lost from the disease cannot be restored. However, there are treatments (medications and surgery) that may save remaining vision. That is why early diagnosis is important.

Text C

BRONCHITIS

Just when you thought you were finally over a cold, your chest starts to feel sore and you develop a cough. Later, you might get the chill or a slight fever.

If these signs and symptoms sound familiar, you might have acute bronchitis, a condition that occurs when the inner walls that line the main air passageways of your lungs become infected and inflamed. Bronchitis often follows a respiratory infection such as a cold. Smoking and exposure to smoke are also risk factors for bronchitis.

Most cases of acute bronchitis disappear within a few days without lasting effects, although coughs may linger for weeks. If you have repeated bouts of bronchitis, see your doctor. You may have a more serious health problem – such as asthma or chronic bronchitis – that needs medical attention.

A cough that brings up yellowish-gray or green mucus (sputum) is one of the main signs of bronchitis. Mucus itself isn't abnormal – your airways normally produce up to several tablespoons of mucus secretions every day. But these secretions usually don't accumulate, because they're continuously cleared into your throat and swallowed with your saliva.

When the main air passageways in your lungs (bronchial tubes) are inflamed, they often produce large amounts of discolored mucus that comes up when you cough. If this persists for more than three months, it is referred to as chronic bronchitis. Mucus that isn't white or clear usually means there's a secondary infection.

Still, bronchitis symptoms can be deceptive. You don't always produce sputum when you have bronchitis, and children often swallow coughed-up material, so parents may not know there's a secondary infection. Many smokers have to clear their throat every morning when they get up. While they may think this is normal for everyone, it's not. If it continues for more than three months, it may be chronic bronchitis.

Acute bronchitis also may be accompanied by common signs and symptoms of an upper respiratory infection, including: soreness and a feeling of constriction or burning in your chest, sore throat, chest congestion, sinus fullness, breathlessness, wheezing, slight fever and chill, and overall malaise

Antibiotics don't effectively treat most cases of bronchitis because the condition usually results from a viral infection. Instead, the following are the cornerstones of acute bronchitis treatment: get plenty of rest, drink extra liquids, take a nonprescription cough medicine.

It's best not to suppress a cough that brings up mucus, however, because coughing helps remove irritants from your lungs and air passages. If your cough is keeping you awake at night, use just enough cough medicine so that you can rest, but not enough to suppress your cough completely. There are several kinds of over-the-counter (OTC) cough medicines. Read their labels to figure out which is most likely to relieve the type of cough you have. If your cough is preventing you from sleeping, your doctor may recommend a prescription cough suppressant.

Your doctor may prescribe an antibiotic if he or she suspects that you have a bacterial infection. If you have a chronic lung disorder or if you smoke, your doctor may also prescribe antibiotics to reduce your risk of a serious, secondary infection.

 

II. Speak on the following topics:

1. Nervous System.

2. Brain.

3. Eye.

4. Ear.

5. Skin.

UNIT 5

LESSON 56

URINARY SYSTEM

VOCABULARY

bladder ['blxdq] сечовий міхур ureter[juq'rItq] сечовід carry ['kxrI] переносити, нести urethra [juq'rI:Trq] уретра, сечівник excretion[eks'krI:S(q)n] виділення bean [bI:n] біб fist [fIst] кулак renal [‘rI:n(q)l] нирковий urine [‘juqrIn] сеча capsule ['kxpsju:l] капсула, оболонка fat pad [pxd] жирове тіло fascia ['feISq] фасція cortex ['kO:teks] кора medulla [me'dAlq] мозок hilum [‘haIlqm], hilus хілус, ворота calyx (pl. calyces) ['keIlIks] ниркова чашка narrow ['nxrqu] звужуватись urination ["juqrI'neIS(q)n] сечовипускання

 

WORD-BUILDING

Ex. 1. Form new words adding the term-element “vaso” – судина:

Constriction; depressor; dilatation; thrombin; stimulant; hypertonic; puncture.

GRAMMAR:

Ex. 2. Familiarize yourself with the following grammar material:





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