ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

ABSOLUTE PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION



 

NOUN (or) PRONOUN PARTICIPLE
Doctor(s) I Participle I (Active): V+ -ing (working; writing)
  He  
Student(s) She Participle I (Passive): being + V3 (being worked; being written)
  It  
  We Participle II (Passive): V3 (worked; written)
  You  
  They Perfect Participle (Active): having + V3 (having worked; having written)
     
    Perfect Participle (Passive): having + been + V3 (having been worked; having been written)

На початку речення The| Absolute| Participle| Construction| перекладається на українську мову підрядним реченням|реченням| із сполучниками|спілками,сполучниками| "після того, як", "коли":

The| work| having| been| done|, the| students| went| home|. Після того, як робота була виконана, студенти пішли додому.

У другій частині|частці| речення|речення| The| Absolute| Participle| Construction| перекладається|перекладає,переказує| самостійним простим реченням із сполучниками "при цьому", "а"|, "і"| або без них:

The| physician| examined| the| patient|, the| students| helping| him|. Лікар|лікарка| оглянув хворого, а студенти допомогли йому.

 

Ex. 3. Read and translate the following sentences:

1. The patient having fallen asleep, the nurse left the ward. 2. The last patient having been examined, the doctor went to the laboratory. 3. The patient being very weak, the operation was postponed. 4. A foreign organism entering the body, it is attacked and destroyed by immune system. 5. My friend suffering from a severe pain, I called in a doctor. 6. The physician palpated the patient's abdomen, the pain becoming severe. 7. The operation having been performed, the patient's condition began to improve. 8. The patient was in a very bad state, his pulse being rapid.

 

READING AND DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS

 

Ex. 4. Read VOCABULARY once more and memorize new words.

 

Ex. 5. Compose 2-3 sentences using the words of the VOCABULARY.

Ex. 6. Insert the missing letters:

Sever_ty; oc_urrence; sput_m; chi_l; constri_tion; comm_nity-acquired; ai_ment; sam_le; sorene_s; asp_ration; infl_me; feve_.

Ex. 7. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Hasten; distortion; aspiration; flu; mucous membrane; air passageways; ailment; spread; deep cough; soreness; chill; fever; drinking extra liquids; damp environment; community-acquired pneumonia; aspiration pneumonia; to detect distortion; a sample of patient’s sputum; severity.

Ex. 8. Read the following words and word-combinations:

Virus; bronchitis; tuberculosis; virtually; cough; breathlessness; recovery; trachea; occurrence; susceptible; acquired; bloody sputum; identify; severity.

Ex. 9. Read the following text:

RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

If bacteria, viruses, or fungi enter the lungs and become established there, they can cause several diseases, classifying from common illnesses such as cold and flu to more serious illnesses such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and tuberculosis.

Bronchitis. When the mucous membranes that line the main air passageways of the lungs become inflamed, the condition is called bronchitis. Virtually everyone has bronchitis at some time.

In most cases, this ailment is the result of viral infections similar to those that cause the cold. The infection spreads to the bronchi, producing the deep cough that, in turn, tends to bring up the yellowish gray sputum from the lungs. The other symptoms are soreness and feeling of constriction in the chest, breathlessness, chill, and slight fever.

Because bronchitis most commonly is the result of a viral infection, the physician probably will be able to do relatively little to hasten the recovery. Rest, drinking extra liquids, and cough medicine are the cornerstones of treatment of bronchitis. The person must avoid other irritants to the airways, such as tobacco smoke. The person must remember that the act of coughing also is irritating to the trachea and bronchi.

If a person has repeated attacks of bronchitis, he/she may be able to trace the occurrence of the conditions in which he/she lives. Cold, damp environments combined with excessive air pollution can make a person more susceptible to bronchitis.

Pneumonia. Pneumonia is an inflammation of the tissues of the lungs. There are many different kinds of pneumonia. The major subtypes are community-acquired pneumonia, hospital-acquired pneumonia, and aspiration pneumonia. The causes of pneumonia are different. Among them are bacteria; influenza and other viruses; and chemical irritants.

The symptoms vary depending on the kind of pneumonia. Cough that produces bloody sputum, breathlessness, pain in the chest, chill, high fever are the major signs and symptoms of pneumonia.

The physician will listen to the chest to detect distortions in the breathing that suggest the presence of the infection. Chest X-rays also may be obtained to identify the location and extent of the infection. A sample of patient's sputum may be tested to identify the infecting agent. Blood test may also be conducted.

The treatment depends on the cause and severity of the patient's symptoms. It may include some antibiotics. Hospitalization may be necessary in severe cases.

 

Ex. 10. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:

Озноб; мокротиння; мазок; позалікарняний; виводити; відхилення; біль, болісність; захворювання, недуга; запалюватися; наявність; слідкувати; стиснення; жар, лихоманка, підвищена температура; вологість; слизова оболонка; бронхіт; запалення легенів; задишка.





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