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Ex. 11. Translate the text “Kidneys Disorders” into Ukrainian.



Ex. 12. Insert the missing words:

1. Glomerulonephritis results from inflammation of the filtration membrane within the renal _. 2. It is characterized by an increased _ of the filtration membrane. 3. The signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis are the following: tea-colored urine, hypertension, fluid retention, _, and generalized aches. 4. Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the renal _, medulla, and cortex. 5. It often begins as a bacterial _ of the renal pelvis. 6. Then it extends into the _ itself. 7. Pyelonephritis may cause the destruction of _ and renal corpuscles. 8. The person with pyelonephritis has _ pain, high fever, vomiting, and burning sensation during urination. 9. When properly treated, acute _ rarely progresses to chronic renal disease. 10. Renal failure may result from any _ that interferes with kidney function. 11. Acute renal failure occurs when damage to the kidney leads to the accumulation of the _ in the blood. 12. In renal failure death may _ in 1 to 2 weeks. 13. Acute renal failure may result from acute _. 14. In some cases it may be caused by damage to or blockage of renal _. 15. Circulatory shock caused by sympathetic _ of the renal blood vessels can cause necrosis of the epithelial cells of the nephron.

Ex. 13. Answer the following questions:

1. What kidneys disorders do you know? 2. What does glomerulonephritis result from? 3. What is glomerulonephritis characterized by? 4. What are the symptoms of glomerulonephritis? 5. What is pyelonephritis? 6. What can pyelonephritis result from? 7. What are the signs of pyelonephritis? 8. What is renal failure? 9. What are the causes of renal failure? 10. Is it dangerous disease?

Ex. 14. Insert the prepositions and translate the following sentences:

1. Acute infections practically always precede the onset _ acute nephritis. 2. Acute glomerular nephritis is not merely a disease of the kidney, but may involve various systems _ the body. 3. The chief changes occurring _ acute glomerular nephritis are swelling and disintegration of the endothelial cells which line the capillaries of the tufts (tuft пучок). 4. The patient may develop the clinical picture of acute nephritis _ a period of from two to eight days. 5. Disturbances of urination characterized _ a scanty (недостатній, обмежений) outflow of urine or even complete anuria may be present. 6. The severity or mildness of the kidney disease cannot always be measured _ the examination of the urine or any other tests.

Ex. 15. Write out key words of the text “Kidney Disorders”.

Ex. 16. Make up a plan of the text “Kidney Disorders”.

Ex. 17. Speak on the kidney disorders. The following expressions may be helpful:

… is one of the kidneys disorders.

The cause of … is … .

The signs and symptoms of … are … .

… may progresses to/can cause … .

Ex. 18. Make up a dialogue on glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, or renal failure. Use the following expressions:

What is the definition of …?

What is the cause of …?

What are the signs of … ?

Ex. 19. Pronounce and memorize the words to the theme studied:

Smooth surfaceгладка, рівна поверхня; stone камінь; referred [rI'fq:d] pain гетеротопічний біль, відбитий (рефлекторний) біль; groin [grOIn] пах; ulceration укривання виразками; obscure [qb'skjuq] неясний; gout [gaut] подагра; pulverize ['pAlveraIz] дрібнити, дробити.

 

Ex. 20. Read and translate the following text:

KIDNEY STONES

Kidney stones are hard objects found in the pelvis of the kidney. They are normally small (2 to 3 mm in diameter) with a smooth surface. Approximately 1% of all autopsies reveal the presence of kidney stones, and many of the stones occur without causing symptoms. The symptoms associated with kidney stones occur when a stone passes into the ureter, resulting in referred pain down the back, side, and groin area. The ureter contracts around the stone, causing the stone to irritate the epithelium and produce bleeding, which appears as blood in the urine. In addition to causing intense pain, kidney stones can block the ureter, cause ulceration in the ureter, and increase the probability of bacterial infections.

Approximately 65% of all kidney stones are composed of calcium oxylate mixed with calcium phosphate, 15% are magnesium ammonium phosphate, and 10% are uric acid or cystine. In all cases approximately 2.5% of the kidney stone is composed of mucoprotein.

The cause of kidney stones is usually obscure. Predisposing conditions include a concentrated urine and an abnormally high calcium concentration in the urine, although the cause of the high calcium concentration is usually unknown. Magnesium ammonium phosphate stones are often found in people with recurrent kidney infections, and uric acid stones often occur in people suffering from gout. Severe kidney stones must be removed surgically. However, instruments that pulverize kidney stones with ultrasound have replaced most traditional surgical procedures.

 





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