Ex. 36. Compose your own dialogue on the endocrine system.

Ex. 37. Read the definitions and fill in blanks with proper term elements given below:

1. Endo_ is the branch of medicine dealing with endocrine glands and internal secretion of the body. 2. Endo_ is abnormal condition when endocrine glands fail to perform their functions. 3. Endo_ is a method of treatment, which includes the using of some hormones. 4. Endo_ is inflammation of the endothelial membrane lining the cavities of the heart. 5. Endo_ is the use of a specific often flexible instruments in medical examination.


A. _scopy; B. _crinology; C. _carditis; D. _crinopathology; E. _crinotherapy.


Ex. 38. Skim through the following text and entitle it:

Although the stated differences between the endocrine and nervous systems are generally true, exceptions do exist (e.g., some endocrine responses are more rapid than some neural responses, and some endocrine responses have a shorter duration than some neural responses). The endocrine system was believed to be relatively independent and different from the nervous system, but a relationship between these systems is now recognized. In fact, the two systems cannot be separated completely either anatomically or functionally. Some neurons secrete into the circulatory system regulatory chemicals called neurohormones, which function like hormones. Other neurons directly innervate endocrine glands and influence their secretory activity. Conversely, some hormones secreted by endocrine glands affect the nervous system and markedly influence its activity.

Several types of chemicals are produced by cells and act as chemical messengers, but not all of them are hormones. Intercellular chemical messengers act as signals that allow one cell type to communicate with other cell types. The signals coordinate and regulate the activities of the many cells that comprise the body. Terms such as hormones, neurohormones, neuromodulators are used to classify these substances. Although many intercellular chemical messengers consistently fit one specific definition, others do not.


Ex. 39. Make up a plan of the text (ex. 38) supplying each item with key words and then narrate the information according to your plan.


Ex. 40. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Залози внутрішньої секреції виділяють гормони. 2. Вони надходять у кров і беруть участь у гуморальній регуляції функцій різних систем організму людини. 3. Залози, які мають протоки, називають залозами зовнішньої секреції, або екзокринними залозами. 4. Залози, які не мають вивідних проток – це залози внутрішньої секреції, або ендокринні залози. 5. Продукти їхньої діяльності потрапляють у серцево-судинну або лімфатичну систему. 6. Щитоподібна залоза – непарний орган масою 20-50 г. Залоза розташована в передній ділянці шиї. 7. Прищитоподібні залози парні. Загальна маса залоз становить у середньому близько 1 г. 8. Надниркова залоза – парний ендокринний орган. Маса залози 12-13 г, довжина 5 см, ширина 3 см. 9. Кора надниркових залоз (adrenal cortex) виробляє кортикостероїди. Мозкова речовина надниркової залози (adrenal medulla) виробляє адреналін і норадреналін. Ці гормони мобілізують захисні сили організму.



The endocrine system consists of cells, tissues, and organs that produce hormones or other chemical substances. The organs of endocrine system act together to control body activities and maintain homeostasis. There are two types of glands. They are endocrine glands and exocrine glands. Endocrine glands are pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads and others. They secrete hormones into the body fluids. Exocrine glands are mammary, salivary, lacrimal, and sweat glands. They secrete chemical substances into ducts, which lead to external body surfaces. Hormone is organic substance, which acts in the metabolic processes and has an effect on the functions of another cells. The endocrine system functions as a control system for the human body.




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