Ex. 12. Translate the text “Cancer” into Ukrainian.


Ex. 13. Complete the following sentences:

Cancer is characterized by _. 2. Cancer can develop in various _. 3. Individual cells carry out all of the body’s functions, such as _. 4. New cells are created through the process of _. 5. Cancer cells divide without _. 6. Cancer cells crowd normal cells out and affect _. 7. They can spread via the blood system to _. 8. Cells of benign tumors do not invade or destroy _.


Ex. 14. Give the English equivalents of the words in brackets. Translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

The mechanism of cancer (розвиток) is not fully known. 2. The best diagnosis of (раку) is an early one. 3. Cancer can be treated before it (розповсюдиться) to other organs or tissues. 4. The cancer diagnosis identifies the type and (розташування) of the cancer. 5. The type of cancer has particular (набір) of target tissues or organs to which it spreads. 6. Cancer therapy (обмежує) and kills the malignant cells. 7. Cancer therapy (включає) using X-rays, surgical treatment, and chemotherapy. 8. X-rays may kill normal tissue (розташований поряд) to the tumor.


Ex. 15. Answer the following questions:

1. What is cancer characterized by? 2. Where can cancer develop? 3. What do the cancer cells lack? 4. What is a tumor? 5. What is the difference between the cells of benign and malignant tumors? 6. What is the goal of early diagnosis? 7. What does each type of cancer have? 8. What is the goal of cancer therapy?


Ex. 16. Insert the missing prepositions:

1. Cancer is a disease, characterized _ excessive division of body cells. 2. Malignant tumors can penetrate and destroy the normal tissue _ which they are a part. 3. The cancerous cells can invade adjacent tissues and spread throughout the body _ way of the blood and lymph systems. 4. The transformation of a normal cell _ a cancerous one is only partially understood at present.


Ex. 17. Put all possible questions to the following sentences:

1. Most of the widely used screening tests are designed to discover common forms of cancer in persons of highest risk. 2. Lung tumors occur at a much greater frequency in asbestos-exposed persons who also smoke. 3. Oncology is the study of cancer and its associated problems. 4. Cancer cells can spread from a tumor site to other areas of the body through the lymphatic system. 5. During cancer surgery malignant lymph nodes are often removed.


Ex. 18. Skim through the text “Cancer” once more, divide it into logical parts, and entitle them.


Ex. 19. Write out the key sentences of the text “Cancer”.


Ex. 20. Be ready to discuss the following topics:

Mechanisms of cancer occurring;

Cancer therapy.

Ex. 21. Write the summary of the text “Cancer”.


Ex. 22. Read the following text and discuss it with your fellow-students:


Breast Cancer

Warning signs: any lump or thickening in the breast or bleeding or discharge from the nipple.

Cancer risk factors: breast cancer most often occurs in women older than 50: in women who have never had children; had their first child after age 30, have never breastfed, and in women from families in which there is a history of breast cancer in mother or sister.

Colorectal Cancer

Warning signs: any rectal bleeding or long change in the bowel habits.

Cancer risk factors: history of colorectal polyps or colorectal cancer in a family member or chronic ulcerative colitis.

Lung Cancer

Warning signs: nagging cough, coughing up blood, persistent attacks of pneumonia or bronchitis, chest pain.

Cancer risk factors: heavy smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants.

Oral Cancer

Warning signs: any change of color in the mouth or sore in the mouth that fails to heal.

Cancer risk factors: most common in men older than 45, heavy smokers, and users of chewing tobacco, especially when coupled with heavy use of alcohol.

Prostate Cancer

Warning signs: difficulty in urination, persistent pain in the lower back, pelvis, or upper thighs, blood in the urine.

Cancer risk factors: most common among men older than 70.

Skin Cancer

Warning signs: a small lesion with irregular border and red, white, blue, or blue-black spots on the trunk or limbs, shiny, firm bump or lesions from pearl to black anywhere on the skin, dark lesions on palms, soles, tips of fingers and toes, large brownish spot with darker speckles on skin exposed to sun, red-purple spots anywhere on the skin, purple-brown or dark blue nodules on toes or leg, pearly or wax bump on face, ear, or neck, flat, flesh-colored or brown scar-like lesion on the chest or back, change in a mole or any sore that fails to heal.

Cancer risk factors: fair skin, blue eyes, or red hair, severe sunburn in childhood, family history of birthmarks or moles.

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