Ex. 24. Having read the text “Development of the Organ System”, point out the facts that turn out to be new for you.


Ex. 25. Read the beginning of the text “Prenatal Care”. Combine remaining corresponding parts into sentences, paying attention to the meaning of the sentences:


Prenatal care is the care woman gets during a pregnancy. Getting early and regular prenatal care is important for the health of both mother and the developing baby. In addition, health care providers are now recommending a woman see a health care provider before she is even trying to get pregnant.

Health care providers recommend women take the following steps to ensure the best health outcome for mother and baby:

Getting at least 400 micrograms of folic acid every day to help prevent many types of neural tube defects. Health care providers recommend taking folic acid both before and during pregnancy.


1. Being properly vaccinated for certain diseases (such as chickenpox and rubella) that could harm a developing fetus – _. 2. Maintaining a healthy weight and diet and _. 3. _ before, during, and after pregnancy.


A. getting regular physical activity before, during, and after pregnancy B. it is important to have the vaccinations before becoming pregnant; C. avoiding smoking, alcohol, or drug use.


Ex. 26. Read the following text and list the signs of pregnancy:


Physical symptoms of pregnancy vary. Of the symptoms listed, not all will occur for every woman, and individuals may well experience different symptoms during different pregnancies. The following is a list of the most common symptoms.

First trimester

Breasts may feel swollen, sore, or tender.

Pregnancy sickness may cause nausea and vomiting. It is also known as morning sickness, although it may occur at any time of the day or night.

The sense of smell may be heightened.

Fatigue is a common symptom in early pregnancy. It results from increased progesterone and may be compounded by increased blood volume, which can result in lower blood pressure and lower blood sugar.

Dizziness and fainting may be experienced, particularly after standing up quickly. These symptoms are caused by lower blood pressure and lower blood sugar.

Frequent mild headaches may occur, caused by increased blood circulation

Constipation is a common symptom caused by increased progesterone, which slows the activity of the large intestine.

Increased urination is caused by pressure of the growing uterus against the urinary bladder.

Emotional lability, including dysphoria, crying spells, and mood swings, may be experienced. These mood changes are triggered by the effect of pregnancy hormones on mood regulation in the brain.

Other symptoms may be experienced specifically during the later stages, such as:

Lower backache. Balance and ease of walking may be affected.

Some women report hair loss, others have more body or "facial" hair.

Sensitivity in teeth, higher risk for gum disease may occur.

Some women during pregnancy experience mental disturbances more severe than typical mood swings. Psychological stress during pregnancy is associated with an increase in other pregnancy symptoms.


Pregnancy is the term used to describe when a woman has a growing fetus inside of her. Human pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks, or just more than 9 months. Pregnancy is typically divided into three periods, or trimesters, each of about three months. The first 3 months of fetal development are the most important. During this time, all the major organs in the body are formed. The eyes and heart have begun to form. At the end of the sixth week the brain becomes more noticeable, and arm and leg buds begin to appear. By the seventh week, the chest and abdomen are fully formed and the lungs are beginning to develop. During the second trimester the fetus grows and the organs formed during the previous weeks mature. At 13 weeks the fetus can kick and move its toes. The mouth can open and close. The fetus is capable of bending its arms and a fist. Fine hair covers the entire body. The first eyelashes and eyebrows begin to appear. During the third trimester the infant’s eyes are open. Most of the body hair is gone, although the shoulders and arms may still have a light covering.





fertilization["fq:tIlaI'zeIS(q)n] запліднення germinal['Gq:mIn(q)l]зародковий, гермінальний embryo['embrIqu]зародок, ембріон fetus['fItqs]плід neonate [nIo'neIt] дитина у віці до одного місяця, новонароджений adolescent["xdqu'lesnt]підлітковий puberty['pjubqtI]статева зрілість accomplish [qk'OmplIS] вчиняти, досягати subsequent ['sAbsIkwqnt] наступний maturation ["mqtjuq'reIS(q)n] розвиток myelin sheath ['maIqlIn'SIT] мієлінова оболонка prone [prqun] що лежить ниць exercise ['eksqsaIz] вправляти aimlessly ['eImlIslI] без мети, безглуздо voluntary ['vOlqnt(q)rI] довільний thumb [TAm] великий палець (руки) suck [sAk] смоктання push-up['puS 'Ap] віджимання raise [reIz] піднімати grasp[gra:sp] хапати, затискати; захоплювати erect [I'rekt] прямо, вертикально, прямовисно reach for [rI:C] діставати, тягнутися roll over [rqul] перекочувати(ся); перевертати(ся) pick up [pIk] піднімати, підбирати



Ex. 1. Form nouns from the verbs adding the suffix -ion and translate them:

Prevent; direct; conduct; connect; reflect; inject; radiate; instruct.




Ex. 2. Read the following sentences, translate them, and determine their tenses:

1. Serious changes occur in the life of the newborn from the time of birth. 2. The subsequent growth and maturation of the brain involve the addition of new neurological cells. 3. By 6 weeks the infant holds up its head and begins to smile in response to people or object. 4. At 3 months of age the infant’s limbs are exercised aimlessly. 5. The infant followed a moving person with eyes. 6. At 8 months the infant will recognize familiar people.


Ex. 3. Insert the correct tense-form of the verbs in brackets:

1. The infant (to grasp) things placed in its hand. 2. In 5 months the infant (to laugh out) loud and (to sit) with support. 3. Yesterday the infant (to pull) itself to a standing position. 4. The kidneys (to function) as glands producing hormones. 5. The kidney (to surround) by a renal capsule. 6. The bladder (to store) the urine.


Ex. 4. Make the following sentences interrogative:

1. The infant listens quietly when hearing a person’s voice or music. 2. They walk without support. 3. The infant examined this object carefully. 3. The average 18-month-olds use only about 10 words. 4. The liver removes certain waste products. 5. The kidneys are involved in the control of red blood cell production. 6. These absorbed substances are retuned to the bloodstream. 7. Immunization is recommended for people with impaired immune system or with serious illness.


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