ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Ex. 19. Compose the dialogue on nervous system.



 

Ex. 20. Find in the dictionary unknown medical terms from the text “Spinal Cord” and memorize them.

 

Ex. 21. Read the following text and retell it:

SPINAL CORD

The spinal cord is extremely important to the overall function of the nervous system. It is the communication link between the brain and the peripheral nervous system inferior to the head, integrating incoming information and producing responses through reflex mechanisms.

The spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum to the level of the second lumbar vertebra. It is shorter than the vertebral column because it does not grow as rapidly as the vertebral column during embryonic development. It is composed of cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral segments, which are named according to the area of the vertebral column from which their nerves enter and exit. Because the spinal cord is shorter than the vertebral column, the nerves do not always exit the vertebral column at the same level that they exit the spinal cord. Thirty-one pairs of the spinal nerves exit the spinal cord and pass out of the vertebral column through the intervertebral foramina.

The spinal cord is not uniform in diameter throughout its length. There is a general decrease in diameter superiorly to inferiorly, and there are two enlargements where nerves supplying the limbs enter and leave the cord. The cervical enlargement in the inferior cervical region corresponds to the location at which nerves that supply the upper limbs enter or exit the cord, and the lumbosacral enlargement in the inferior thoracic and superior lumbar regions is the site at which the nerves that supply the lower limbs enter or exit.

Immediately inferior to the lumbar enlargement the spinal cord tapers to form a cone-like region called the conus medullaris. Its tip is at the level of the second lumbar vertebra and is the inferior end of the spinal cord. A connective tissue filament, the filum terminale, extends inferiorly from the apex of the conus medullaris to the coccyx and functions to anchor the cord to the coccyx. The nerves supplying the legs and other inferior structures of the body (L2 to S5) exit the lumbar enlargement and conus medullaris, course inferiorly through the vertebral canal, and exit through the intervertebral foramina from L2 to S5. The conus medullaris and the numerous nerves extending inferiorly from it resemble a horse's tail and are therefore called the cauda equina.

NOTE:

S – sacral L – lumbar

OVERVIEW

The nervous system is the information center and control system. The basic unit is the neuron. A neuron consists of a cell body, axon, and dendrites. A neuron receives chemical signals from other neurons through the synapses. All signals are combined as an electrical signal within the neuron. It sends an outgoing chemical signal to another synapses. The nervous system is divided into central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The meninges surround and protect the brain and spinal cord. They are dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater. CNS processes information and integrates mental processes. The peripheral nervous system is divided into two parts: a cranial part and spinal part. PNS is composed of afferent and efferent neurons. The peripheral nervous system collects information from numerous sources and relays it to the central nervous system.

LESSON 50

BRAIN

VOCABULARY

brain [breIn] головний мозок vault [vO:lt] склепіння cerebrum ['serIbrqm] великий мозок midbrain ['mIdbreIn] середній мозок pons [pOnz] міст medulla oblongata [me'dAlq "OblON'geItq] довгастий мозок cerebellum ["serI'belqm] мозочок bit [bIt] шматочок; частина, невелика кількість thalamus ['Txlqmqs] таламус affect [q'fekt] впливати add up ['xd 'Ap] відповідати convey [kqn'veI] передавати hemisphere ['hemIsfIq] півкуля conscious ['kOnSqs] свідомий linking ['lINkIN] зв’язок core [kO:] серцевина; ядро atop [q'tOp] поверх; над cerebral cortex ['kO:teks] кора головного мозку

 

WORD-BUILDING

Ex. 1. Read and translate the following words and word-combinations:

Ache; acute ache; bad ache; bone ache ; dull ache; face-ache; persistent ache; toothache; acheless; aching;

Act; action; emergency action; reflex action; activate; activation; active; radioactive implant; activity; hyperactivity; inactivate; inactivation;

Adhere; adherence; adherent; adhesion; primary adhesion; adhesive; biological adhesive; adhesiveness.

 

GRAMMAR:

Ex. 2. Familiarize yourself with the data of the following table:

SEQUENCE OF TENSES

He said (Past Simple) Він сказав, що he examined patients in the morning. (Past Simple) оглядає пацієнтів вранці.   hehad examined patients. (Past Perfect) оглянув пацієнтів.   he would examine patients. (Future-in-the-Past) огляне пацієнтів.

Ex. 3. Read and translate the following sentences:

1. We learned the brain was the part of the central nervous system. 2. She knew the surgeon had performed on the operation a day before. 3. They said the flow of stimuli came into the brain from the eyes, ears, and other sense organs. 4. The scientists determined the hypothalamus controlled blood pressure. 5. It was estimated the patient would restored his health by the end of June.

 

Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Лікар|лікарка| виявив, що у хворого високий кров'яний тиск|тиснення|. 2. Професор сказав, що кровоносні судини|посудини| поділяються на артерії, вени і капіляри. 3. Лектор сказав, що м'язові волокна з'єднуються за допомогою сполучної тканини. 4. Ми дізналися|упізнавали,взнавали,пізнавали|, що мозок складається з 100 мільярдів нейронів.





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