ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Ex. 18. Write out key sentences of the text “Immune System”.



Ex. 19. Speak on the immune system.

Ex. 20. Read the following text and compose detailed plan to it:

IMMUNITY

There are four ways to acquire specific immunity: active natural, active artificial, passive natural, and passive artificial. Natural and artificial refer to the method of exposure. Natural exposure implies that contact with antigen or antibody (protein found in the plasma is responsible for humoral immunity) occurrs as part of everyday living and was not deliberate. Artificial exposure, also called immunization, is a deliberate introduction of antigen or antibody into the body.

"Active" and "passive" describe whose immune system is responding to the antigen (antigens are large molecules that stimulate a specific immune system response). When the individual is exposed to the antigen (either naturally or artificially), there can be a specific immune system response, which is called active immunity because the individual's own immune system is the cause of the immunity. Passive immunity occurs when another person or animal develops immunity and the immunity is transferred to a nonimmune individual.

Active natural immunity results from natural exposure to an antigen. Because the individual is not immune during the first exposure, he/she usually develops the symptoms of the disease. Interestingly, exposure to an antigen does not always produce symptoms. In active artificial immunity an antigen is deliberately introduced into an individual to stimulate his/her immune system. This process is vaccination, and the introduced antigen is vaccine. Injection of the vaccine is the usual mode of administration (tetanus toxoid, diphtheria, and whooping cough), although ingestion (Sabin poliomyelitis vaccine) is sometimes used. Passive natural immunity results from transfer of antibodies from a mother to her fetus or baby. Achieving passive artificial immunity usually begins with vaccinating an animal such as a horse. After the animal's immune system responds to the antigen, antibodies are removed from the animal and are injected into the individual requiring immunity.

 

Ex. 21. Translate the following abstract without using dictionary:

Immunity can be natural or artificial, innate or acquired, and active or passive.

Active natural (contact with infection): develops slowly, is long term, and antigen specific.

Active artificial (immunization): develops slowly, lasts for several years, and is specific to the antigen for which the immunization was given.

Passive natural (transplacental = mother to child): develops immediately, is temporary, and affects all antigens to which the mother has immunity.

Passive artificial (injection of gamma globulin): develops immediately, is temporary, and affects all antigens to which the donor has immunity.

Ex. 22. Read the following text, entitle it, and discuss obtained information with your fellow-student:

Disorders in the immune system can cause various diseases. Immunodeficiency diseases occur when the immune system is less active than normal, resulting in recurring and life-threatening infections. Immunodeficiency can either be the result of a genetic disease, such as severe combined immunodeficiency, or be produced by pharmaceuticals or an infection, such as the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) that is caused by the retrovirus HIV. In contrast, autoimmune diseases result from a hyperactive immune system attacking normal tissues as if they were foreign organisms. Common autoimmune diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus I, and lupus erythematosus.These critical roles of immunology in human health and disease are areas of intense scientific study.

Both immune cells and foreign molecules enter the lymph nodes via blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. All immune cells exit the lymphatic system and eventually return to the bloodstream. Once in the bloodstream, lymphocytes are transported to tissues throughout the body, where they act as sentries on the lookout for foreign antigens.

We are all born with a genetically based natural defense system. The skin is the most important organ of our natural defense system. An injury is a gateway for germs to enter the body. This, or the presence of a foreign object within the body, causes the immune system to act, getting rid of the invaders, while the skin takes care of the wound. When this process does not take place, it results in an infection. Another sign of the functioning of the immune system is when we get a rash or a bump on the skin after a mosquito bites.

When you have a vaccination, your immune system is given a copy of a specific disease, so that if the system comes across the disease again, the memory cells in the immune system will know exactly what action to take, likewise, if you have had a disease before, they know what to do in the event of reinvasion.

 

Ex. 23. Make up a dialogue on the immune system.

 

Ex. 24. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Лімфатичні вузли, селезінка, червоний кістковий мозок і загруднинна залоза об’єднуються в імунну систему. 2. Імунна система забезпечує захист організму від генетично чужорідних клітин та речовин. 3. Імунітет – це спосіб захисту організму від інфекційних і неінфекційних агентів та речовин, які мають ознаки чужорідної генетичної інформації. 4. Залежно від механізмів, які формують несприйнятливість організму до патогенних факторів, виділяють такі основні види імунітету: природний та штучний, активний та пасивний. 5. Імунна система включає всі органи, в яких відбувається утворення і диференціація клітин, що здійснюють захисні реакції організму. 6. Найважливіші клітини імунної системи – це лімфоцити, які поділяються на Т-лімфоцити і В-лімфоцити.

OVERVIEW

The immune system is one of the most important systems in the human body. The major parts of immune system are the thymus, spleen, lymph system, bone marrow, white blood cells, antibodies, and hormones. They work together to clear infection from the body. Human body has many mechanisms that defend the person against infectious organisms. The skin and gastrointestinal tract are the first lines of defense. The human organism has a specific capacity of resistance against infection called immunity. Agents that can invade the human body live everywhere. The majority of these organisms do not produce disease, but some do. The basic types of organisms that cause infectious disease are bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminths. Possible help for the immune system is a healthy diet, with lots of natural sources of vitamins A, C and E, zinc, iron, and vitamin B6.

 

LESSON 44

AIDS

VOCABULARY

semen['sI:mqn] сперма, секрет чоловічих статевих органів contaminate [kqn'txmIneIt] заражати, інфікувати exposure [Iks'pquZq] контакт з джерелом зараження persist [pq'sIst] продовжувати; зберігати, утримувати; soaking ['squkIN] значний; абсорбуючий, поглинаючий sweat [swet] піт; пітніння; потовиділення; функціональна секреція поту spot [spOt] пляма; ділянка ураження blemish ['blemIS] дефект germ [Gq:m] мікроорганізм meninx (pl. meninges) ['menINks] мозкова оболонка dementia [dI'menSIq] недоумство pandemic[pxn'demIk]пандемія worldwide['wq:ldwaId] в усьому світі, всесвітній booster ['bu:stq] бустер; реімунізація, ревакцинація opportunistic ["Opqtju:'nIstIk] умовно-патогенний, опортуністичний awareness [q'wFqnIs] обізнаність, знання breast[brest]груди; молочна залоза fungal [fANgql] грибковий behavior [bI'heIvjq] поводження; ставлення; манери, поведінка tumor ['tjumq] неоплазма, новоутворення; пухлина cyst [sIst] киста

 

WORD-BUILDING

Ex. 1. Familiarize yourself with the following material:

Prefixes and term-elements:

mal- (bad)

malposed в аномальному положенні, ненормально розміщений

micro-(small)

microtubule мікротрубочка

Mis-

to inform інформувати– to misinform неправильно інформувати

 

Ex. 2. Read and translate the following words:

A. Malignant; malaise; malnutrition; malfunction.

B.Microscopic; microscopist; microulceration; microorganism; microvilli; microbiology; microtubule.

C.Misunderstand; misinform; misadvise; misaligned; misapply; misbecome; misbirth; miscall; miscode.

GRAMMAR:

Ex. 3. Familiarize yourself with the data of the following table:

FUNCTIONS OF “ONE”

AIDS is one of the most common diseases. СНІД– одне з найбільш розповсюджених захворювань.
One may discuss this problem now. Це питання можна обговорити зараз.
The right lung has three lobes, and the left one has two. Праве легеня має три частки, а ліве – дві.

Ex. 4. Read and translate the following sentences into Ukrainian:

1. The upper opening of the stomach is called the cardiac sphincter and the lower one is called the pyloric sphincter. 2. Most organs are composed of two or more tissue types that perform one or more common functions. 3. One of the greatest contributions to the world science made by V. Vorobyov was "Atlas on Human Anatomy". 4. The upper cavity of the trunk is called the chest and the lower one is called the abdomen. 5. One of the prominent therapeutists professor Konchalovsky considers that a person may be a poor writer, he may be a bad painter or an actor but a person cannot and must not be a bad doctor. 6. Upper and lower incisors, cuspids and lower bicuspids are one root teeth, upper bicuspids and lower molars are two root teeth, upper molars are three root ones. 7. The blood analysis, urine ones and other tests help to make a correct diagnosis and administer proper treatment. 8. One can see surgical, cardiological, pulmonological, gastroenterological and other departments in this clinic. 9. In the cardiological department one can see patients with heart diseases, such as: myocarditis, pericarditis, cardiosclerosis and others. 10. Take these tablets one every three hours. 11. There are no serious injuries. Only superficial ones. 12. AIDS is one of the most dangerous diseases.

 





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