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TUMORS OF THE SMALL INTESTINE



Tumors of the small intestine are relatively uncommon. They represent only 3 to 6 percent of all abnormal growths in the gastrointestinal tract. Intestinal tumors can be benign or malignant.

Most tumors of the small bowel are benign and usually are discovered between ages 40 and 60. The most frequent symptoms are pain, nausea and vomiting, and bleeding. There are several types of benign tumors, including lipomas, leiomyomas, angiomas, and adenomas. These tumors do not spread. They often are an incidental finding on an X-ray made because of another problem, although some benign tumors can cause bleeding.

A small percentage of tumors of the small intestine are malignant. The most common malignant types are adenocarcinoma, leiomyocarcoma, carcinoid tumor, and lymphoma.

Bleeding, perforation, and obstruction are common manifestations of a leiomyocarcoma, whereas a carcinoid tumor may cause no symptoms before it spreads.

The diagnosis of a tumor in the small intestine is often made with a barium X-ray.

Benign tumors are not life-threatening, but they can cause dangerous symptoms such as bleeding and obstruction. Like any malignancy, cancer of the small intestine is dangerous and life- threatening illness and requires prompt treatment.

Surgery is usually recommended for all benign tumors that cause symptoms and for malignancies that have not become too widespread for surgical treatment. At times, the X-ray examination of the intestine cannot distinguish a benign from a malignant tumor, and surgical exploration of the abdomen and removal of the tumor are necessary before the diagnosis can be made. When a tumor has metastasized to such an extent that surgery will not be effective, steroid medications, chemotherapy, and radiation may be used.

 

Ex. 21. Pronounce and memorize the words to the theme studied:

Hereditary спадковий; von Hippel-Lindau disease ангіофакоматоз; outcome наслідок; advocateрекомендувати; infancy початкова стадія розвитку.

Ex. 22. Read and translate the following text:

CANCER OF THE KIDNEY

Renal cell carcinoma is the most common cancer of the kidneys. It also is called renal adenocarcinoma. It begins in one of the cells that form the lining of a renal tubule. Renal cell carcinoma occurs twice as often in men as in women. The most common age at diagnosis is between 55 and 60. Smokers, particularly those who smoke pipes or cigars, are at greater risk of renal cell carcinoma than are nonsmokers. In some instances, the disease appears to be hereditary. A large number of persons with von Hippel-Lindau disease, an inherited condition affecting the capillaries of a part of the brain, also have renal cell carcinoma.

The outcome with renal cell carcinoma depends on the extent to which the tumor has spread. If the tumor is in its earliest stage, 60 to 75 percent of affected people will survive for at least 5 years. If the lymph nodes around the kidney have been infiltrated, the 5-year survival rate drops to 5 to 15 percent. When the cancer has spread to other organs, fewer than 5 percent survive for 5 years.

When it appears that a renal cell carcinoma has not spread beyond the kidney, the best treatment is removal of the entire kidney. Some surgeons advocate also removing the surrounding lymph nodes. Sometimes, radiation therapy may be used to prevent spread of the cancer. If the disease has spread, there is no universally agreed on method of treatment.

 

Ex. 23. Ask 5-7 questions on the text “Cancer of Kidney” and be ready to answer them.

 

OVERVIEW

The cause of malignant gastric tumor is unknown. Genetic factors may have some influence. The signs and symptoms of gastric tumor are discomfort in the upper or middle region of the abdomen, black stools, vomiting after meals, vomiting of blood, weight loss, and anemia. If the tumor is malignant, surgical removal is the only chance to cure. If the cancer is diagnosed early full recovery is possible. Sometimes surgery may be recommended to alleviate pain, bleeding, or obstruction. In addition to surgery for malignant tumors, chemotherapy is used as an additional treatment. Radiation is sometimes used, but both radiation and chemotherapy can only relieve the symptoms, they do not cure the cancer. If the cancer is too far advanced for chemotherapy or surgery to be effective, analgesic drugs may be used to reduce pain.

 

LESSON 60

PREGNANCY

VOCABULARY

pregnancy [‘pregnqnsI] вагітність fetus [‘fI:tqs] (утробний) плід female [‘fI:meIl] жінка gravida [‘grxvIdq] вагітна embryo [‘embrIqu] зародок, ембріон trimester [traI’mestq] триместр, тримісячний термін sensitive [‘sensItIv] чутливий assault [q’sO:lt] тут: негативне явище inch [InC] дюйм ( = 2.5 см ) ounce [auns] унція ( = 28.3 г ) fertilization [“fq:tIlaI’zeIS(q)n] запліднення burrow [‘bq:rqu] ховатися, зариватися placenta [plq’sentq] плацента, послід rudiment [‘ru:dImqnt] рудимент, зачаток evident [‘evId(q)nt] явний, очевидний mammal [‘mxm(q)l] ссавець noticeable [‘nqutIsqbl] помітний bud [bAd] брунька, зачаток gestation [Ges’teIS(q)n] вагітність; період вагітності albeit [O:l’bI:t] хоча (б) mature [mq’tjuq] дозрівати, розвиватися kick[kIk] штовхати ногою transparent [trxns’pFqr(q)nt] прозорий vernix [‘vq:nIks] сироподібна змазка, першородна змазка

WORD-BUILDING

Ex. 1. Analyze the structure of the following terms and translate them into Ukrainian:

Medical; development; typically; subdivide; outside; addition; noticeable; eyebrow; deficiency; toxic.

 

GRAMMAR:

Ex. 2. Familiarize yourself with the following grammar material:

ING- FORM OF THE VERB:

The covering coat consists of different types of cells. Покривна оболонка складається з різних видів клітин|клітин|.
The physician examining the patient is a skilled specialist. Лікар, що оглядає пацієнта, – досвідчений фахівець.
Examining the patient the cardiologist listened to his heart. Оглядаючи хворого, кардіолог прослухав його серце.
The physician was standing near the patient examining him attentively. Лікар стояв біля пацієнта, уважно оглядаючи його.
Running is useful. Біг корисний (бігати – це корисно).

 

Ex. 3. Read and translate the sentences paying attention to –ing forms:

1. Hemoglobin containing iron is an important protein in erythrocytes. 2. Platelets (thrombocytes) formed in the bone marrow are necessary for blood clotting. 3. The human body needs energy for its functioning. 4. The upper opening of the stomach is called the cardiac sphincter. 5. The remaining part of food from the small intestine passes into the large intestine. 6. Diabetes is connected with the malfunctioning of the so-called beta-cells of the pancreas. 7. Breathing is of vital importance for the preservation of life. 8. The size and form of neuron depends upon the length and a number of its receptive branching fibers, which are called dendrites. 9. Scientists consider that there are up to 12 billion nerve cells, which are performing their function of coordination of the human activities all over the body. 10. Good nursing care is essential. 11. Thyroid-stimulating hormone is produced by adenohypophysis. 12. Adenohypophysis is responsible for producing adrenocorticotropic hormones. 13. For a women athlete, taking the anabolic steroids could lead to increased muscle development. 14. Pregnancy is the term used to describe when a woman has a growing fetus inside of her. 15. The term embryo is used to describe the developing human during the initial weeks. 16. After burrowing deep within the uterus, the egg begins to grow, doubling in size every day. 17. The baby’s face and features are forming in the eight gestational week. 18. By the seventh week, the chest and abdomen are fully formed and the lungs are beginning to develop. 19. The baby is covered with a thick white protective coating. 20. Being at the sanatorium the patient began to feel much better.

 

Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Віддаючи кисень всім тканинам організму, червоні кров’яні клітини|клітини| живлять|почувають| їх. 2. Частота дихання може збільшуватися завдяки швидкому бігу. 3. Ми спостерігали, як хірург оперував цього хворого. 4. Хворий страждав на абдомінальну кровотечу, яка, до того ж, була сильною. 5. Основним симптомом хронічного бронхіту є|з’являється,являється| хронічний кашель, що продукує велику кількість слизу. 6. Куріння є|з’являється,являється| першопричиною хронічного захворювання легенів. 7. Пальці на руках і ногах плоду зараз починають|розпочинають,зачинають| розвиватися. 8. Я пішов поговорити з|із| кардіологом, що лікує мого батька|батька|. 9. Фіброзні пучки, створюючі м’язову структуру серця, діляться на дві групи. 10. Переносячи кров до і від легенів, судини|посудини| малого кола|кола| кровообігу розширюються і скорочуються одночасно з роботою серця. 11. Він працює над визначенням стану білих кров’яних клітин|клітин|. 12. Мікроорганізми, які потрапляють|попадають| в організм людини, можуть спричинити розвиток інфекції. 13. Процес росту|зросту| відбувається|походить| в результаті|унаслідок,внаслідок| збільшення кількості клітин|клітин|. 14. Піти з|із| лікарні без вказівки лікаря|лікарки| неможливо. 15. Лікувати пацієнтів з|із| інфарктом необхідно в стаціонарі.

 





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