ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Ex. 23. Give a summary of the text “Lungs”.



 

Ex. 24. Make up the dialogue on the structure and functions of the lungs.

 

Ex. 25. Read the following words and word-combinations and memorize their meaning:

Branch| розгалужуватися; create| створювати; adjacent| розташований|схильний| поряд|поруч|, суміжний, сусідній; inhale| вдихати; push| down| натискати|натискувати|, тискнути; suck| всмоктувати, засмоктувати; similar| подібний, схожий; file| ряд|лава,низка|, колона; merge| зливати(ся|ся|), сполучати|з'єднувати|(ся|ся|).

Ex. 26. Read and translate the following text:

NORMAL VENTILATION

The primary function of the lungs is to provide oxygen to the blood and to remove carbon dioxide from it. The lungs are within the chest, which is enclosed on all sides by the ribs, cartilages, and the muscles between them.

To reach the lungs, air enters through the mouth and nose and then travels through the pharynx, larynx, and down trachea. As you know the trachea branches into two main bronchial tubes, or air passageways. Each bronchial tube then branches into smaller passageways (bronchi), which divide several times more, finally forming much smaller tubes (bronchioles). The branching creates the appearance of an upside-down tree. The smallest bronchioles end in tiny closed elastic air sacs called alveoli. The blood is carried to these air sacs by tiny blood vessels. The vessels, called pulmonary capillaries, release carbon dioxide from the blood into air sacs and at the same time absorb oxygen from the air sacs into the blood.

The pleura covers the outside of the lungs and the adjacent chest wall. This membrane allows the lungs to move easily within the chest cavity as the human breathes.

When you inhale, the muscles of ribs contract, causing the ribs to move upward and outward. At the same time, the diaphragm contracts, pushing down toward the abdomen. These two actions increase the size of the chest cavity and thus cause the lungs to expand and air to be sucked into them.

When you exhale, the diaphragm and rib muscles relax and return to their original positions. This decreases the size of the chest cavity, compressing the lungs slightly and forcing the air, now carrying carbon dioxide, out of the body. The whole process of breathing in and out occurs automatically without your thinking about it.

The lungs are connected to the heart by the pulmonary veins and arteries (the term "pulmonary" comes from the Latin word pulmo for "lung"). The blood travels throughout the body, returns to the heart, and is pumped by the right ventricle through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. The blood then passes through the arteries of the lungs into smaller vessels, similar to the branching of the bronchi. Finally, it flows into the smallest blood vessels, which are located in the membranes lining the alveoli. Capillaries are so tiny that often the cells of the blood have to pass through them single file.

After gases are exchanged in the alveoli, the blood, now carrying oxygen, passes into the smallest veins. These veins merge to form larger and larger vessels until the pulmonary veins are formed. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart, from which it is pumped out again to deliver oxygen to the cells of the body and to remove carbon dioxide.

Ex. 27. Make up a plan of the text “NormalVentilation”.

Ex. 28. Write out key words of the text “Normal Ventilation”.

Ex. 29. Speak on the ventilation.

 

Ex. 30. Make up the dialogue on the normal ventilation.

Ex. 31. Read and determine the main idea of the following text:

SMOKING

Smoking is the primary cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Deaths caused by emphysema and chronic bronchitis are significantly more frequent than among nonsmokers.

Tobacco smoke contains a mixture of chemicals, gases, and tiny droplets of tar. Thousands of substances have been identified in tobacco smoke. The toxic effects of many of them remain unknown. Some components are filtered off when the person draws the smoke through the remaining unburned tobacco. However, as the cigarette burns, these chemicals are vaporized again and each puff of smoke thus contains more of the components. Most smokers inhale the cigarette smoke, which makes it even more dangerous.

Cigarette smoke contains 2 to 6 percent carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas that combines with hemoglobin (carboxyhemoglobin). When this occurs the hemoglobin molecule cannot transport oxygen to the tissues. Many smokers have carboxyhemoglobin levels of 8 to 10 percent in their blood whereas a nonsmoker commonly has only up to 1.5 percent. A person dying from acute carbon monoxide poisoning has blood carboxyhemoglobin levels of 30 to 40 percent. Thus, the tissues are deprived of needed oxygen.

The tar found in cigarettes contains substances that cause cancer. Irritants in tobacco smoke cause the person’s air passages to constrict and bronchial tubes to produce excess mucus, and they cause the person to cough. These irritants also may impair the function of the immune system cells in the lungs and upset the normal balance of pulmonary enzymes, which makes the person more susceptible to respiratory disease. Finally, inhaled tobacco smoke stops the action of the cilia in the airway. Cilia are tiny hair-like projections in the trachea and bronchial tubes. They help expel foreign material from the lungs.

Thus, the main health risks in tobacco pertain to diseases of cardiovascular system, in particular myocardial infarction, diseases of respiratory system, and cancer, particularly lung cancer and cancers of the larynx and tongue. A person’s increased risk of contracting disease is directly proportional to the length of time that a person continues to smoke as well as the amount smoked. However, if someone stops smoking, then these chances gradually decrease as the damage to their body is repaired. A year after quitting, the risk of contracting heart disease is half that of a continuing smoker.

 

Ex. 32. Speak on smoking and its fatal consequences.

 

Ex. 33. Read the following words:

Nicotine [‘nIkqtI:n] нікотин; addictive [q’dIktIv] до якого звикають; target [‘ta:gIt] мати на увазі; advertising [‘xdvqtaIzIN] реклама; hurt [hq:t] завдавати шкоди; second-hand smoking пасивне куріння; claim[kleIm] стверджувати; lack відчувати нестачу; self-confidence [self’kOnfIdqns] самовпевненість; give up кидати (звичку); calm down [ka:m] заспокоювати; moodнастрій; get burned згоріти; обпектися; hopeless невиправний; bury [‘berI] ховати.

 

Ex. 34. How much do you know about cigarettes? Do you know the truth or you playing with fire? Try this test. Are the statements below true of false? Write “T” for true and “F” for false:

1. Smokers are more likely to get colds and the flu than non-smokers.

2. Cigarettes aren’t tested on animals.

3. Nicotine is more addictive than most illegal drugs.

4. One in four smokers starts at the age of 12.

5. Cigarette companies specifically target young people in their advertising.

6. Smoking when you’re pregnant doesn’t hurt your baby.

7. Smoking causes heart problems, cancer, and ulcers.

8. Second-hand smoke from other people’s cigarettes is harmless.

9. If you don’t start smoking before age of 20, you probably won’t ever start.

10. More girls smoke than boys.

11. Doctors claim that lots of teenagers smoke because they lack self-confidence.

12. Giving up smoking can make you gain weight.

13. Tobacco kills more persons each year than alcohol, illegal drugs, and AIDS combined.

14. Cigarettes are so addictive because it only takes 7 seconds to feel the effect of nicotine in the blood.

15. Cigarettes can calm you down.

 

Add up your score:

Less than 3 wrong: Congratulations. You can definitely see through the smoke.

4 to 8 wrong: Like most people, there are still a few things you need to know about nicotine.

9 to 11 wrong: You’ve got lots to learn about the dangers of smoking. Be careful, you might get burned.

More than 12 wrong: Hopeless! Which planet have you been living on? If you’re not careful, they’ll bury you ten years before your non-smoking friends.

(Answers: 1-T; 2-F; 3-T; 4-T; 5-T; 6-F; 7-T; 8-F; 9-T; 10-T; 11-T; 12-T; 13-T; 14-T; 15-T)

Ex. 35. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Дихальна система забезпечує насичення організму киснем, виділення вуглекислого газу і води. 2. Система органів дихання складається із повітроносних шляхів (порожнини носа, глотка, гортань, трахея, бронхи) та дихальної частини. 3. Гортань – непарний орган завдовжки 4 см. 4. Трахея має форму трубки завдовжки 9-15 см. 5. Трахея виконує дихальну функцію. 6. Бронх має форму трубки. 7. Розгалудження бронха від головної до кінцевої бронхіоли називається бронхіальним деревом. 8. Легеня – це парний орган, який міститься в грудній порожнині. 9. У легені розрізняють верхівку, основу й три поверхні. 10. Основна функція легенів – дихальна (газообмін).

OVERVIEW

The respiratory system consists of the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea (windpipe), bronchi, and lungs. The respiratory system and the cardiovascular system take oxygen from the air and transport it to individual cells. Air enters the nasal cavity. Then the air passes into the pharynx. After that air reaches the larynx and then trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs. The lungs are the principal organs of the respiration. The right lung is larger than the left. The right lung has three lobes, and the left lung has two. The primary function of the lungs is to provide oxygen to the blood and to remove carbon dioxide from it. Respiration involves several important processes: 1) ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the respiratory passages and the lungs; 2) gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood; 3) transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood; and 4) gas exchange between the blood and the tissues.

 

LESSON 40

RESPIRATORY DISORDERS

VOCABULARY

inflame [In'fleIm] запалюватися ailment ['eIlmqnt] захворювання, недуга bring up [brIN] виводити; виробляти sputum ['spju:tqm] мокротиння soreness ['sO:nIs] біль, болісність constriction [kqn'strIkS(q)n] стиснення chill [CIl] озноб, гарячка, пропасниця fever ['fI:vq] жар, лихоманка, підвищена температура hasten ['heIsn] прискорювати trace [treIs] слідкувати; встанавлювати occurrence [q'kAr(q)ns] наявність damp [dxmp] сирість, вологість community-acquired [q'kwaIqd] позалікарняний aspiration ["xspq'reIS(q)n] аспірація distortion [dIs'tO:S(q)n] відхилення, аномалія sample [sa:mpl] мазок severity [sI'verItI] тяжкість

 

WORD-BUILDING

Ex. 1. Form new words adding the prefix anti-. Define the part of speech and translate:

MODEL:

toxin токсин – antitoxin антитоксин.

Body, gen, ferment, pepsin, septic, serum, virus, vaccination, bacterial, coagulant, microbic.

GRAMMAR

Ex. 2. Familiarize yourself with the data of the following table:

 





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