Ex. 21. Say to what conclusion you have come after having read the text “Kidney Stones”.


Ex. 22. Match the following terms with their definitions:

  1. Glomerulonephritis.
  1. Hypernephroma.
  1. Hydronephrosis
  1. Pyelitis.
  1. Polycystic kidney.
  1. Gout.
A. The inflammation of a kidney pelvis. B. The enlargement and swelling of the kidney due to block of urine flow, caused by renal calculi, tumors, or narrowing of the ureters. C. A disease resulting from a disturbance of uric acid metabolism, characterized by an excess of uric acid in the blood and deposits of uric acid salts in various tissues. D. The inflammation of the kidneys, primarily involving the glomerula; this disease causes destruction of the glomerular capillary walls. E. Renal malignant tumor of the kidneys, which occurs in adults. It usually metastasizes to the bones, blood and lungs. F. The formation of numerous fluid-filled sacs upon and within the kidney.

Ex. 23. Pronounce and memorize the words to the theme studied:

Rejection відторгнення; compatibility сумісність; cadaver [kq'deIvq] труп; acceptable прийнятний, задовільний; locate виявляти; offer виражати готовність; accept приймати, сприймати; hurdle бар'єр, перешкода; prone схильний (до), підвладний; follow-up наступний; спостереження, нагляд, віддалений результат; enhance [In'ha:ns] збільшувати, підсилювати, поліпшувати; ensure [In'Suq] гарантувати, забезпечувати.


Ex. 24. Give a summary of the following text:


Transplantation and dialysis are the only two treatment options for persons with end-stage kidney disease. Not everyone with end-stage kidney disease is a suitable candidate for kidney transplantation. Those with infection, acute glomerulonephritis, unstable coronary artery disease, or other severe medical problems generally are considered not to be in good enough condition to undergo a major operation. They can have adverse reactions, including death, after transplantation than are healthier individuals. However, when successful, transplantation provides a healthier and better-quality life.

The operation itself is not a complicated procedure. What can be complicated is finding the right donor, which is important to lessen the chance of rejection of the new kidney. Compatibility is determined by blood tests that provide information about both the donor and the recipient, such as blood type and the nature of the antibodies present in each. A brother or sister of the recipient generally has compatible tissue. Unfortunately, it is not always possible.

When a living donor is not available, hospitals and clinics throughout the country are called on the help locate acceptable donors from among accident victims and others who offered to donate their kidneys after their death. A kidney from a cadaver must be transplanted within 48 hours after the death of the donor. Thus, some people have to undergo long periods on dialysis until a compatible cadaver donor is available.

After the transplantation operation, the person receives immonusuppressant drugs to keep his/her body from rejecting the foreign kidney. If the donor is a blood relative of the recipient, the chances are 85 to 95 percent that by 1 year after the transplantation, the kidney will still be functioning. With a cadaver donor, the chances are about 80 percent that the kidney will still be working quite well by 1 year after the transplant operation. In cases in which the transplanted kidney is rejected, a second or even third transplantation can be done.

Improvements in preparing patients for transplantation and in monitoring their recovery have decreased mortality to as low as 5 percent in some medical centers.

Transplant recipients usually are hospitalized for 5 days to 6 weeks, depending on how well their body accepts the new kidney. The major hurdles are rejection and infection. Immonusuppressant drugs have greatly decreased rejection, but they make it harder for the body’s immune system to fight infection. For this reason, the physician will often give antibiotics to prevent viral and fungal infection for the first few months after transplantation. This is the most likely period in which infection may develop. Because transplant recipients must take an immonusuppressant medication for the rest of their lives, they are prone to have infections.

Kidney transplant recipients need careful medical follow-up to enhance the success of the operation and to ensure good general health.


There are many forms of kidneys diseases. Glomerulonephritisresults from inflammation of the filtration membrane within the renal corpuscle. It is characterized by an increased permeability of the filtration membrane. The signs and symptoms of glomerulonephritis are the following: tea-colored urine, hypertension, fluid retention, headaches, and generalized aches and pains. Pyelonephritis is inflammation of the renal pelvis, medulla, and cortex. It often begins as a bacterial infection of the renal pelvis. Then it extends into the kidney itself. Pyelonephritis may cause the destruction of nephrons and renal corpuscles. The ability of the kidney to concentrate urine is dramatically affected. As a rule the person has flank pain, high fever, vomiting, and burning sensation during urination. When properly treated, acute pyelonephritis rarely progresses to chronic renal disease. Renal failure may result from any condition that interferes with kidney function. Acute renal failure occurs when damage to the kidney leads to the accumulation of the urea in the blood. In renal failure death may occur in 1 to 2 weeks. Acute renal failure may result from acute glomerulonephritis. In some cases it may be caused by damage to or blockage of renal tubules. Circulatory shock caused by sympathetic vasoconstriction of the renal blood vessels can cause necrosis of the epithelial cells of the nephron.





cancer [‘kxnsq] рак excretion [eks’krI:S(q)n] виведення (речовини з організму), екскреція differentiation [“dIfqrenSI’eIS(q)n] модифікація, пристосування, видозмінення pattern [‘pxtqn] зразок, модель orderly [‘O:dqlI] систематичний, упорядкований, організований; правильний lack [lxk] не мати; відчувати нестачу, потребувати, мати потребу crowd out [kraud] витискати; замінювати; скупчуватися restraint [rIs’treInt] обмеження compete [kqm’pI:t] конкурувати tumor [‘tjumq] неоплазма, новоутворення; пухлина nearby [‘nIqbaI] близький, суміжний via [vaIq] за допомогою чого-небудь. benign [bI'naIn] доброякісний attempt[q'tempt] намагатись, прагнути confine [kqn’faIn] обмежувати malignant [mq’lIgnqnt] злоякісний accomplish [q’kOmplIS] досягати adjacent [q’GeIs(q)nt] розташований поряд; близький, суміжний



Ex. 1. Write the derivatives of the following words and translate them:

Bacteria; number; count; produce; harm; grow; culture; appear; differ; examine; toxic.


Ex. 2. Familiarize yourself with the data of the following table:



to be + noun (with a preposition) Main Verb The heart is in the chest.  
To be + noun (without preposition) Link-Verb The heart is a muscular organ.  
To be + Ving (Continuous Tenses, Active Voice) to be + being + V3 (Continuous Tenses, Passive Voice) Auxiliary Verb   The heart is making 120 beats per minute. He was being examined by the surgeon.
To be + V3 (Simple Tenses, Passive Voice) to have + been + V3 (Perfect Tenses, Passive voice)       The heart is located in the chest.   A case-history has been filled in.
to be + V (with particle “to”) Modal Meaning The heart is to pump blood throughout the vessels.
It +to be Impersonal Sentences It is hot. It was painful.
It is + V3 (Passive Voice) Indefinite Personal Sentences It is known that she works here.


Ex. 3. Read the following sentences and translate them into Ukrainian:

1. Cancer is characterized by abnormal growth of cells. 2. The human body is a living, growing system that contains billions of individual cells. 3. New cells are created through the process of cell division. 4. Cancer therapy is concentrated primarily on trying to confine and then kill the malignant cells. 5. This goal is accomplished by killing the tissue with X-rays. 6. It is important to remember that cancer is very serious disease. 7. Why cancer develops in some people is not fully known. 8. Chemotherapy is the use of medications to treat cancer. 9. The illnesses are associated with a cancer. 10. The major groups of malignant tumors are carcinomas, sarcomas, and mixed-tissue tumors. 11. Students are carrying out very important experiment. 12. Was he preparing Anatomy at 5 o’clock yesterday? 13. The oncologist is to examine this female.


Ex. 4. Translate the following sentences into English:

Кров’яний тиск|тиснення| цього пацієнта був визначений вчора|учора|. 2. На яких конгресах були прийняті|установлені| всі анатомічні терміни? 3. Напрям|направлення| м’язового скорочення буде встановлений|установлений| експериментально|експериментальний|. 4. Його здоров’я було відновлене після|потім| належного лікування. 5. Вважається|лічить|, що глибокий сон необхідний, щоб|аби| відновити функцію нервової системи. 6. Відомо, що гістологічна будова|споруда| тканини легень і печінки різна|. 7. Без даних аналізів буває складно встановити правильний діагноз. 8. Вважають|гадають|, що хворий повністю|цілком| відновить своє здоров’я до кінця лікування. 9. Хворому необхідно визначити групу крові до операції. 10. Вважали|вважали|, що йому необхідна операція на нирках.



Ex. 5. Read VOCABULARY and memorize new words.

Ex. 6. Insert the missing letters and translate the following words:

Ac_omplish; confi_e; beni_n; ne_rby; compet_, restra_nt; mali_nant; tum_r; cro_d out; pat_ern; la_k; different_iation; _ancer.


Ex. 7. Translate the following words into English:

Пухлина; рак; доброякісний; злоякісний; обмеження; близький, розташований поряд|сусідній|, сусідній; намагатися|пробувати|, прагнути; заміщати, замінювати; організований, впорядкований; модель, зразок|взірець|; екскреція; розвиватися; рости|зростати|; вторгатися; знищувати; тканина; визначати; кістковий мозок.


Ex. 8. Read and memorize the following terms:

Tumor is any abnormal swelling, lump or mass. In current English, however, the word tumor has become synonymous with neoplasm, specifically solid neoplasm. Note that some neoplasms, such as leukemia, do not form tumors. Neoplasm: the scientific term to describe an abnormal proliferation of genetically altered cells. Neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Malignant neoplasm or malignant tumor: synonymous with cancer. Benign neoplasm or benign tumor: a tumor (solid neoplasm) that stops growing by itself, does not invade other tissues and does not form metastases. Invasive tumor is another synonym of cancer. The name refers to invasion of surrounding tissues. Pre-malignancy, pre-cancer or non-invasive tumor: a neoplasm that is not invasive but has the potential to progress to cancer (become invasive) if left untreated. These lesions are, in order of increasing potential for cancer, atypia, dysplasia and carcinoma in situ. Metastasis: new tumors that appear far from the original tumor. Chemotherapy: treatment with drugs. Radiation therapy: treatment with radiations. Carcinoma: Malignant tumors derived from epithelial cells. This group represents the most common cancers, including the common forms of breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer. Sarcoma: Malignant tumors derived from connective tissue.


Ex. 9. Read the following words and word-combinations:

Characterize; generalize; cause; excretion; accompanying process; acquire; pattern; orderly; divide; neighboring; nutrient; tumor; metastasis; via the blood system; benign tumor; procedure available today; identify; primarily; remove; adjacent; nausea.

Ex. 10. Read the following text:


Cancer is general term for various illnesses characterized by abnormal growth of cells, forming tumors that can develop in various parts of the body. Some cancers can affect one organ, and others are more generalized. Cancer is very serious disease. Annually, cancer is diagnosed in approximately 1.4 million persons. Cancer causes more than 500.000 deaths every year.

As we know, the human body is a living, growing system that contains billions of individual cells. These cells carry out all of the body’s functions, such as metabolism, transportation, excretion, reproduction, and locomotion. The body grows and develops as a result of increases in numbers of new cells and their changes into different types of tissue. New cells are created through the process of cell division. Different types of cells are created by an accompanying process called cell differentiation (differentiation is the process by which cell acquires a specialized function). Cell division results in the normal pattern of human growth; cell differentiation makes possible the normal, orderly pattern of growth and development.

Unlike normal cells, cancer cells lack the controls that stop growth. They divide without restraint, displacing neighboring normal cells by crowding them out and affecting their normal function and growth by competing with them. These uncontrolled cells can grow into a mass called a tumor (or a neoplasm) and invade and destroy nearby normal tissue. They also can migrate in a process called “metastasis”, spreading via the blood or lymph system to other parts of the body. It is important to note all cells that have rapid or uncontrolled growth are cancer cells. Cells may accumulate as benign tumors, which do not invade or destroy surrounding tissues.

Why cancer develops in some people is not fully known. The earlier the cancer detected, the greater the chances it can be treated before it spreads to other tissues or organs in the body. With the cancer screening procedures available today, many cancers can now be detected early enough to be cured. Every diagnosis of cancer attempts to identify the type and location of the cancer. Each type of cancer has its own characteristic rate of growth, tendency to spread, and particular set of target tissues or organs to which it spreads.

Cancer therapy is concentrated primarily on trying to confine and then kill the malignant cells. This goal is accomplished by killing the tissue with X-rays, by removing the tumor surgically, or by treating the patient with drugs that kill rapidly dividing cells (chemotherapy). The major problem is that some cancers cannot be removed completely by surgery or killed by X-rays. In addition, X-rays may also kill normal tissue adjacent to the tumor. Drugs used in cancer therapy do not kill only cancer tissue, but they kill any other rapidly growing tissue as well such as bone marrow (in which new blood cells are produced) and the lining of the intestinal tract. Loss of these tissues can result in anemia (caused by a lack of red blood cells) and nausea (caused by loss of the intestinal lining).


Ex. 11. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Abnormal growth of cells; annually; to increase in numbers of new cells; cells are created through the process of cell division; acquire; orderly pattern; unlike normal cells; cancer cells lack the controls that stop growth; without restraint; to invade and to destroy nearby tissue; via the blood or lymph system; benign tumors; early diagnosis; procedures available today; to kill the malignant cells; goal; rapidly growing tissue; nausea.


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