Ex. 16. Write out key words of the text “Urinary System”.

Ex. 17. Compose detailed plan of the text “Urinary System”

Ex. 18. Speak on:

the structure of the organs of the urinary system;

the location of the organs of the urinary system;

the functions of the organs of the urinary system.

Ex. 19. Put the questions to the following sentences:

1. Urea is formed in the liver from ammonia. 2. The layers of kidneys consist of cortex and medulla. 3. The kidneys can be compared with the filters because they perform the filtration of waste products from the blood. 4. The process of filtration and formation of urine takes place within the tiny tubules of the kidney. 5. The urethra is a tube through which urine is discharged from the urinary bladder and passed out of the body.

Ex. 20. Make up a dialogue on the urinary system.

Ex. 21. Read the following text and retell it:


The urinary system participates with other organs to regulate the volume and composition of the intestinal fluid. Exchange across the walls of capillaries provides nutrients and removes waste products from the interstitial spaces. Exchange of gas in the lungs removes carbon dioxide from the blood and provides a supply of oxygen. The digestive system supplies nutrients to the blood, and the liver removes certain waste products. These organ systems function together to regulate the level of gases, nutrients, and some waste products in the blood. The kidneys remove waste products, many of which are toxic, from the blood and play a major role in controlling blood volume, the concentration of ions in the blood, and the pH of the blood. The kidneys are also involved in the control of red blood cell production and vitamin D metabolism. Although the kidneys are the major excretory organs in the body; the skin, liver, lungs, and intestines also eliminate wastes. However, if the kidneys fail to function, other structures cannot adequately compensate to maintain a normal environment for the body cells.


Ex. 22. Give a summary of the following text:


Blood enters each kidney from its renal artery, a major branch of the aorta, the body's main artery.

Once inside the kidney, the blood passes through a set of filtering systems called nephrons. These are the main functioning units of the kidney. Each kidney contains more than 1 million such units, each consisting of a tuft of small blood vessels, called a glomerulus, and some tubules. Although most nephrons measure 50 to 55 mm in length, the nephrons with renal corpuscles located within the cortex near the medulla are longer than the nephrons with renal corpuscles in the cortex nearer to the exterior of the kidney.

First, the blood passes through the glomerulus. The blood cells, proteins, large particles, and some of the water remain in the bloodstream. Everything else, including a large volume of water, filters out and passes into the tubule.

In the tubule, an important process occurs to control what will be excreted in the urine and what will be reabsorbed into the blood. Waste products (urea, creatinine, and uric acid) and excess salts, water, and calcium remain within the tubule. The other substances are absorbed. These absorbed substances are then returned to the bloodstream. Thus, the composition of the urine is determined by both the need to get rid of unwanted substances and the need to retain other substances.

The urine that has remained in the tubule emerges from its lower end, enters the ureter, and goes to the bladder, where it is stored. When the nerves of the bladder signal a feeling of fullness, the urine is avoided through the urethra.


Ex. 23. Read and translate the following words:

Adjacent; maintain; urea; erythropoiesis; cushion; cardiac output; interlobar; papillae; arcuate artery; radial artery; arteriole; peritubular; glomerule; link.

Ex. 24. Read the following text:


The kidneys are complex organs that have numerous biological roles. Their primary role is to maintain the homeostatic balances of bodily fluids and secreting metabolites (such as urea) and minerals from the blood and excreting them, along with water, as urine. The kidneys are important regulators of blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and erythropoeisis (the process by which red blood cells (erythrocytes) are produced). The medical field that studies the kidneys and diseases of the kidney is called nephrology. The prefix nephro- meaning kidney is from the Ancient Greek word nephros; the adjective renal meaning related to the kidney is from Latin rēnēs, meaning kidneys.

In humans, the kidneys are located in the posterior part of the abdomen. There is one on each side of the spine. The right kidney sits just below the liver, the left one is located below the diaphragm and adjacent to the spleen. Above each kidney an adrenal gland is. The asymmetry within the abdominal cavity caused by the liver results in the right kidney being slightly lower than the left one, while the left kidney is located slightly more medial.

The kidneys are approximately at the vertebral level T12 to L3. The upper parts of the kidneys are partially protected by the eleventh and twelfth ribs, and each whole kidney is surrounded by two layers of fat, which help to cushion it.

In a normal human adult, each kidney is about 10 cm long, 5.5 cm in width and about 3 cm thick, weighting 150 grams. Together, the kidneys weight about 0.5% of a person’s body weight.

The two kidneys together receive between 20% and 25% of the total cardiac output. Each kidney receives its blood supply from the renal artery, two of wich branch from the abdominal aorta. Upon entering the hilum of the kidney, the renal artery divides into smaller interlobar arteries situated between the renal papillae. At the outer medulla, the interlobar arteries branch into arcuate arteries, which course along the border between the renal medulla and cortex, giving off still smaller branches, the cortical radial arteries. Branching of these cortical arteries are the afferent arterioles supplying the glomerular capillaries, which drain into efferent arterioles. Efferent arterioles divide into peritubular cappilaries that provide an extensive blood supply to the cortex. Blood from these capillaries collects in renal venules and leaves the kidney via the renal vein. Efferent arterioles of glomeruli closest to the medulla send branches into the medulla, forming the vasa recta (intestinal artery). Blood supply is intimately linked to blood pressure.


Ex. 25. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the major role of the kidneys? 2. Are the kidneys important regulators of blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and erythropoeisis? 3. Why is the right kidney slightly lower than the left one? 4. How do the kidneys receive blood supply?

Ex. 26. Describe the structure of kidney using the following figure:

Parts of Kidney Parts of the kidney: 1. Renal pyramid; 2. Efferent vessel; 3. Renal artery; 4. Renal vein; 5. Renal hilum; 6. Renal pelvis; 7. Ureter; 8. Minor calyx; 9. Renal capsule; 10. Inferior renal capsule; 11. Superior renal capsule; 12. Afferent vessel; 13. Nephron; 14. Minor calyx; 15. Major calyx; 16. Renal papilla; 17. Renal column.  

Ex. 27 Describe kidneys’ functions. The following expressions may be helpful:

1. The function of kidneys is to maintain the homeostatic balances. Or: Kidneys maintain the homeostatic balances. 2. The kidneys remove waste products. Or: The function of kidneys is to remove waste products. Or: The primary role of kidneys is removal of waste products. Or: Kidneys function to remove waste products.


Ex. 28. Write the summary of the text "Kidneys".


Ex. 29. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Органи сечової системи складаються з двох нирок та органів, які слугують для накопичення і виведення сечі (сечоводи, сечовий міхур, сечівник). 2. Нирка – парний, бобоподібної форми орган, масою 120-200 г. 3. Знаходиться нирка в поперековій ділянці, з боків від хребтового стовпа. 4. Права нирка знаходиться на 1 – 1,5 см нижче від лівої. 5. Сечовід має форму трубки, завдовжки 30-35 см, діаметром 4-7 см. 6. Функція сечоводу – проведення сечі. 7. Сечовий міхур – непарний порожнистий орган. 8. Функція сечового міхура – накопичення та виведення сечі. 9. Сечівник – непарний орган у формі трубки. 10. Сечівник має два отвори – внутрішній та зовнішній. 11. Функція сечівника – виведення сечі.


The main function of the urinary system is removal of excess fluid and waste material from the blood. The urinary system consists of two kidneys, urinary bladder, ureters, and urethra. The kidneys are located against the back of the abdominal wall. Each kidney is generally about the size of the person's fist. Kidneys are the most important organs for fluid excretion. Ureters are muscular tubes. They propel the urine to the bladder. The bladder is a muscular bag that stores the urine. The urethra is the narrow tube through which the urine leaves the bladder during urination.




glomerular[glO'merulq] клубочковий, гломерулярний glomerulonephritis [glO'merulqnI'fraItIs] гломерулонефрит corpuscle ['kO:pAsl] тільце renal corpuscle ['rI:nql] мальпігієве тільце, ниркове тільце permeability ["pq:mjq'bIlItI] проникність filtrate ['fIltrIt] фільтрат; ['fIltreIt] фільтрувати osmolality ["OzmO'lxlItI] осмотичний тиск blurred[blq:d] нерізкий pyelonephritis ["paIqlqunI'fraItIs] пієлонефрит renal pelvis ['pelvIs] ниркова лоханка nephron ['nefrOn] нефрон (структурно-функціональна одиниця нирки) flank [flxNk] бік recur [rI'kq:] рецидивувати eradicate [I'rxdIkeIt] усувати, звільняти failure ['feIljq] недостатність urea ['juqrIq] сечовина acidosis ["xsI'dousIs] ацидоз, кислотна інтоксикація renal tubule ['tju:bju:l] нирковий каналець ischemia [Is'kI:mIq] ішемія vasoconstriction ["vxsokOns'trIkSn] ангіоспазм, вазоконстрикція, вазоспазм, звуженння кровоносних судин



Ex. 1. Analyze the structure of the following terms and translate them into Ukrainian:

Irregular; relaxation; subcutaneous; eyeball; surgical; vomiting; respiration; paralysis; overdosage.


Ex. 2. Familiarize yourself with the data of the following table:


to have + noun Main Verb The heart hasfour chambers.  
to have + V3 (Perfect Tenses, Active Voice) to have + been + V3 (Perfect Tenses, Passive Voice) Auxiliary Verb The heart haspumped oxygenated blood.  
to have + V (with particle “to”) Modal Meaning The doctor has to examine her.


Ex. 3. Read the following sentences and translate them into Ukrainian:

1. Many of the abnormalities have no symptoms. 2. Instruments that pulverize kidney stones with ultrasound have replaced most traditional surgical procedures. 3. They had adverse reactions, including death. 4. As a rule the person has flank pain, high fever, vomiting, and burning sensation during urination. 5. In persons who have had chickenpox, the virus can cause shingles later in life. 6. He has estimated that mitosis is the division of the nucleus into two nuclei. 7. The arteries have to be strong as well as flexible. 8. The students of many countries have to pay for their training.


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