Ex. 12. Translate the text “Brain” into Ukrainian.

Ex. 13. Insert the missing words:

1. The _ is the part of the CNS located within the cranial vault. 2. The major regions of the brain are the cerebrum, the thalamus and hypothalamus, _, pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum. 3. The brain is responsible for control of coordination, learning, memory, _, and thought. 4. The brain is composed of approximately 100 billion _. 5. The brain is connected to the spinal cord by the brain _. 6. Brain stem is composed of the _, the pons, and midbrain. 7. The brain _ controls breathing and circulation of blood. 8. Cranial nerves exit from the brain stem to _muscles of the face, eyes, tongue, ears, and throat.

Ex. 14. Answer the following questions:

1. Where is the brain located? 2. What regions of the brain do you know? 3. What is the function of the brain? 4. What is the brain stem composed of? 5. What parts is the cerebrum divided into? 6. Where is the cerebellum located? 7. Where are thalamus and hypothalamus located?


Ex. 15. Insert the prepositions:

Thalamus and hypothalamus are two important parts _ the brain. Thalamus is a mass of grey matter forming the lateral walls of the diencephalon (the part of the brain between the brainstem and the cerebrum), which is involved _ the transmission of some sensations. It monitors the stimuli we receive _ suppressing some and increasing others. Hypothalamus is the part of the brain that forms the bottom _ the third ventricle and regulates many basic body functions, such as sleep, appetite, temperature, and some emotions.

The received stimuli impulses are recognized, summarized and analyzed _ the central part of the nervous system (brain). Then they sent out _ a form of specific orders _ different parts and organs of the human body. The investigations determined some areas _ the brain, which control vision, hearing, movements, and emotions.


Ex. 16. Match the following words with their definitions:

1. Dura mater. 1. The outer layer over most of the cerebrum, the so-called “grey matter” of the brain.
2. Cerebrum. 2. The upper, main and the largest part of the brain consisting of two equal hemispheres and controlling conscious and voluntary processes.
3. Cerebral cortex. 3. The upper layer, the outmost of the three membranes, which surrounds the brain and spinal cord.
4. Cerebellum. 4. A piece of connecting tissue, the bridge of white matter at the base of the brain, containing neural connections between the cerebrum and cerebellum.
5. Pons. 5. Top of the section of the brain behind and below the cerebrum; it consists of two lateral lobes and a middle lobe and functions as the coordinating center for muscular movements and maintains balance.


Ex. 17. Write out key words of the text “Brain”.

Ex. 18. Give a summary of the text “Brain”.

Ex. 19. Compose short dialogues using the following model.


Student A: What regions does the brain consist of?

Student B: The brain consists of the cerebrum, the thalamus and hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum.

Student A: What did I ask the student B?

Student C: You asked him/her what regions the brain consisted of.

Student A: What did the student B answer?

Student D: He/She answered the brain consisted of the cerebrum, the thalamus and hypothalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum.


– What does the brain stem control?

– What do the cranial nerves convey?


Ex. 20. Read the following abstract and write down all unknown medical terms. Translate them with the aid of dictionary. Tell about the hypothalamic functions:


The hypothalamus is the most inferior portion of the diencephalons and contains several small nuclei and nerve tracts. The hypothalamus is very important in a number of functions, all of which have emotional and mood relationships:

Function Description
Autonomic Helps control heart rate, urine release from the bladder, movement of food through the digestive tract.  
Endocrine Helps regulate pituitary gland secretions and influences metabolism, ion balance, and sexual development.  
Muscle control Controls muscles involved in swallowing and stimulates shivering in several muscles.  
Temperature regulation Promotes heat loss when the hypothalamic temperature increases by increasing sweat production and promotes heat production when the hypothalamic temperature decreases by promoting shivering.  
Regulation of food and water intake Hunger center promotes eating and satiety center inhibits eating; thirst center promotes water intake.  
Emotions Large range of emotional influences over body functions; directly involved in stress-related and psychosomatic illnesses and with feelings of fear and rage.  
Regulation of the sleep-wake cycle Coordinates responses to the sleep-wake cycle with other areas of the brain.


Ex. 21. Divide the following text into logical parts and entitle them:

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