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Ex. 14. Write out key words of the text “Childhood Infectious Diseases”.



Ex. 15. Make up a plan of the text “Childhood Infectious Diseases”.

Ex. 16. Speak on:

the causes of infectious diseases;

the signs and symptoms of the infectious diseases you know.

 

Ex. 17. Give a summary of the text “Childhood Infectious Diseases”.

Ex. 18. Make up the dialogue on the infectious diseases of childhood.

 

Ex. 19. Read the following text and retell it:

CHICKENPOX

Chickenpox is an acute contagious disease of children, characterized by feverishness and an eruption on the skin.

The disease occurs in epidemics affecting especially children under the age of ten years. The disease is caused by a certain type of virus. There is an incubation period of twelve to twenty days after infection, and then the child becomes feverish or has a slight shivering, or may feel more severely ill with vomiting and pains in the back and legs. Within 24 hours, an eruption consisting of red pimples which quickly change into vesicles (везикула, пухирець) filled with clear fluid appears on the back and abdomen, on the head, chest and forehead, and less frequently on the limbs. These vesicles during the second day may show a change of the contents to turbid, purulent fluid and within a day or two they burst, or at all events shrivel up, and become covered with brownish crusts. In a slight case there may be only eight or ten of these vesicles; in severe cases their number may amount to one hundred or even more. The small crusts dry up and fall off in two or three weeks and recovery is almost always complete.

The infected children must be isolated from other children until the last crust has disappeared. A patient need not be confined to bed unless the temperature is raised, but he/she should be kept in one room. If the rash appears on the face, care must be taken to prevent scratching. A simple dusting powder relieves the itchiness. In the majority of cases no other treatment beyond isolation is required. If children have been exposed to the risk of infection, it is usual to isolate them for a period of twenty days before allowing them to return to school.

 

Ex. 20. Give the summary of the following text:

IMMUNIZATION

Nearly all children are vaccinated by the age 4 or 5 years because they must be immunized before they are allowed to enter school. For most vaccines, immunization should begin when a child reaches age 2 to 3 months.

Diphtheria.The vaccine usually is given in combination with tetanus and whooping chough vaccines. The immunization should be started when the child reaches 2 months of age and is given as series of 5 shots. A booster shot should be given every 10 years.

Whooping cough.Immunization is begun between 1 and 3 months of age. A few children may have reaction to the shot, in which case no further injections should be given.

Tetanus.Tetanus toxoid usually is given to children in a series of 5 shots, in combination with diphtheria and whooping cough immunization.It is given at ages 2, 4, and 5 months, again at 18 months, and before the child enters school. A tetanus/diphtheria booster is given every 10 years.

Polio.Poliomyelitis vaccine generally is given orally as a live vaccine at ages 2 and 4 months and at 18 months.

Measles.A live weakened measles vaccine is given to healthy children at about 15 months of age, usually in combination with mumps and rubella vaccines.

Mumps.Mumps vaccine is given in one dose, usually in combination with measles and rubella vaccines. It should not be given to children younger than 1 year.

Hepatitis A.A safe and effective vaccine is available for people at high risk for hepatitis A or travelers. This vaccine also is being considered for universal use in children. Persons younger than 18 years receive a three-injection series of vaccine; those older than 18 receive two injections.

Hepatitis B.A vaccine is available for people who are at risk of contracting the disease and are not immune. It is also now recommended that children be immunized against hepatitis B during the first month of life, at 2 to 4 months, and again at 6 to 18 months.

Rabies.If you are bitten by a rabid animal, you must receive a vaccine, given as five injections on separate days (the first day and 3, 7, 14, 28 days later), along with a passive antibody given on the first day.

Chickenpox (Varicella).A vaccine for prevention of chickenpox is available and should be considered for children between ages 12 and 18 months. Children younger than 13 years receive one dose of vaccine. Those older than 13 receive two doses given 4 to 8 weeks apart.

 

OVERVIEW

The most known infectious diseases of childhood are chickenpox, measles, and mumps. The signs and symptoms of measles are fever, cough, sneezing, inflamed eyes, sore throat, tiny white spots on the lining of the cheek, and rash. The virus that causes the disorder is transmitted by inhalation of infecting droplets. Whooping cough occurs in infants younger than 2 years. It is contracted by inhaling infected airborne droplets. The symptoms of this disease are: sneezing and nasal congestion, tearing, loss appetite, and cough. Fever, weakness, and red, itchy rash are the signs of chickenpox. Chickenpox occurs primarily in children. It is spread by breathing in infected respiratory droplets or by unprotected direct contact with the rash. Mumps is a childhood disease, but it can occur in adults. Its symptoms are the following: swollen, painful salivary glands, fever, weakness and fatigue, inflammation of the pancreas, testicles, ovaries, or brain. Mumps is caused by a virus and spread by inhalation of infected droplets. Diphtheria is an acute infection. It usually attacks the respiratory tract. Infection occurs by inhalation of airborne droplets exhaled by a person with the disease. The signs of this disease are sore throat and hoarseness, nasal discharge, malaise and fever, thick gray membrane covering the throat and tonsils, rapid pulse. Scarlet fever is caused by a specific type of streptococcal bacteria. The bacteria produce a specific type of toxin that causes a rash.

 

LESSON 64

MEASLES

VOCABULARY

measles [mI:zlz] кір rubeola [ru:'bI:olq] кір rubella[ru:'belq] краснуха contagious[kqn'teIGqs] інфекційний, контагіозний incomplete ["Inkqm'plI:t] недосконалий address [q'dres] звертати увагу на, замислюватися над tiny ['taInI] дуже маленький, крихітний spot [spOt] пляма persistent [pq'sIstqnt] стійкий; постійний spike [spaIk] різко підніматися blotchy['blOCI] покритий плямами fade [feId] поступово зникати rid [rId] звільняти; рятувати accompany [q'kAmpqnI] супроводжувати, benefit ['benIfIt] мати користь, перевагу

GRAMMAR:





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