Unlike an infant, who triples his/her weight during the first year and eats well, the 1-year-old child’s rate of growth slows considerably. By the time the child enters the second year of life, he/she should be eating a variety of foods. It includes milk products, meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, bread, cereal, rice, and pasta, and fruits and vegetables. A balanced diet may also include desserts and fats such as butter, margarine, mayonnaise, and oils. Until age 2, fat should not be limited in the child’s diet. Dietary fat and cholesterol are important for the infant’s growth.

The following foods should form the foundation of the child’s diet:

Milk products. Milk, cheese, cottage cheese, butter, and yogurt are excellent sources of calcium, which is necessary for building strong bones and teeth. Four servings (доза, порція) a day are recommended. For the 1-year-old child, a serving is ½ cup, and for older preschoolers the serving size may be as larger as ¾ cup.

Meat and Eggs. This group includes beef, poultry, fish, pork, liver, and eggs. These foods are excellent sources of protein, which is necessary for the growth and repair of tissue cells. The preschooler needs three or more servings a day.

Fruits and Vegetables. The child should have at least four servings a day from this food group. To obtain an adequate amount of vitamin C, one or more servings should be citrus fruit, berries, tomato, and cabbage. The child needs at least one serving of a green or yellow fruit or vegetable, which are excellent source of vitamin A.

Grains. This food group includes whole-grain cereals, breads, rice, and pasta. Four or more daily servings are recommended. The serving for the 1-year-old is one-half slice of bread, one-half ounce of ready-to-eat cereal, or one-fourth cup of pasta. For the 5-year-old, one and one-half cup of pasta constitutes a serving.

These are the food groups necessary for a nutritionally balanced diet.


Ex. 29. Make up a dialogue on obtained information.


The goal of feeding newborn is to help the baby grow. The newborn does not have a varied diet. If the mother is breastfeeding, the baby will be nourished by breast milk. If the newborn has bottle-feeding, he/she will be given formula. The baby eats as much as is needed. The best indication that the baby is receiving the necessary nourishment is weight gain. The basic diet of the newborn and child must include proteins, carbohydrates, fats, water, minerals, and vitamins. Protein is essential for growth and for the repair of cells. Carbohydrates supply most of the body’s energy needs. Fats are a concentrated source of energy. Water is absolutely essential for human life. Minerals are important to the structure of every part of the body. Vitamin A is needed for eyes and to keep the linings of the bronchial, urinary, and intestinal tracts healthy. Vitamin C is needed for the development of bones, blood vessels, and other tissues. Vitamin D is needed for the development of bones and teeth. Nowadays it is proved that the ideal feeding method is breastfeeding. During the infant’s first year of life, the feeding is important part of the baby’s day. The frequency of feeding depends on the baby’s needs and the method of feeding. Before 4 to 6 months, the baby gastrointestinal system may be unable to absorb solids efficiently. Precooked rice cereal is often used as baby’s first solid food. At 8 months, most infants are ready to try pureed meats. By the time the infant is between 6 and 8 months old, he or she should be eating 3 to 4 ounces of solids at each of three meals. By the time the child enters the second year of life, he/she should be eating a variety of foods. It includes milk products, meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, bread, cereal, rice, and pasta, and fruits and vegetables. A nutritionally balanced diet is very important for child.





diphtheria [dIf'TIqrIq] дифтерит, дифтерія scarlet fever ['ska:lIt'fI:vq] скарлатина inhalation [Inhq'leIS(q)n] вдих; інгаляція contagious [kqn'teIGqs] інфекційний congestion [kqn'GeS(q)n] застій, закладання contract [kqn'trxkt] заразитися rupture ['rApCq] розриватися shingles ['SINglz] оперізуючий лишай parotitis [pxrO'taItIs] паротит fatigue [fq'tIg] втома, втомлюваність illness [I'nIs] хвороба, захворювання tear [tFq] сльоза testicle ['testIkl] яєчко ovary ['ouvqrI] яєчник exhale [eks'heIl] видихати hoarseness ['hO:snIs] хрипота discharge [dIs'Ca:G] виділення malaise [mq'leIz] відчуття загального дискомфорту chill [CIl] озноб, гарячка, пропасниця; застуда uneventful [AnI'ventful] неускладнений Corynebacterium diphthriae [kA'raInbxk"tIrIqm dIf'TIrIq] паличка Клебса-Леффлера (збудник дифтерії) rash [rxS] висип




Ex. 1. Read and translate the sentences containing modal verbs and their equivalents:

1. Many of the most known diseases of childhood are highly infectious diseases that can be passed easily from person to person. 2. Until the rash disappears, you still can pass disease to others. 3. The tongue may be swollen for somewhat longer, but recovery usually is uneventful. 4. There is an incubation period of twelve to twenty days after infection, and then the child becomes feverish or has a slight shivering, or may feel more severely ill with vomiting and pains in the back and legs. 5. These vesicles during the second day may show a change of the contents. 6. He must be isolated from other children until the last crust has disappeared. 7. If the rash appears on the face, care must be taken to prevent scratching. 8. The arteries have to be strong as well as flexible. 9. Capillaries are so tiny that often the cells of the blood have to pass through them single file. 10. The person has to wear a bracelet stating who should be contacted if a seizure occurs.


Ex. 2. Make up some sentences (ex. 1) interrogative.

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