ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

READING AND DEVELOPING READING SKILLS



Ex. 9. Read VOCABULARY and memorize the following words.

Ex. 10. Compose 2-3- sentences using the words of VOCABULARY.

Ex. 11. Insert the missing letters:

Advant_ge; nutriti_n; in_ulation; no_rishment; bo_tle-feeding; enha_ce; fo_mula; b_by; weigh_.

Ex. 12. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Vehicle; feeding; virtually; goal; carbohydrate; offer; weight gain; benefit; varied diet ['daIqt]; processed milk; essential; repair of cells; store; fat intake; low-fat diet.

Ex. 13. Read the following words and word-combinations:

Goal; diet; breast milk; average; major; adequate; muscle; enzyme ['enzaIm]; source; vehicle; absorption; absolutely; require; iron; balance; nowadays; hourly.

Ex. 14. Read the following text:

NEWBORN’S NUTRITION

The goal of feeding newborn is to help the baby grow and to include nutrients that will enhance the baby’s health.

Unlike the older baby, the newborn does not have a varied diet. If the mother is breastfeeding, the baby will be nourished by breast milk. If the newborn has bottle-feeding, he/she will be given formula, usually a combination of specially processed cow’s milk, vitamins, and minerals mixed with water.

As a rule, the baby knows how much food is needed. The baby eats as much as is needed, regardless of how much is left. When it is time to eat again, the baby will usually let the parents know. If a baby doesn’t get enough to eat, you will soon know it. He or she cries until you offer more food.

The best indication that the baby is receiving the necessary nourishment is weight gain. Some babies gain weight slowly, and others gain rapidly. As a rule, the average baby gains 2 pounds a month during the first 3 months of life. Regardless of whether the source is mother’s milk or formula, the following are the components of the basic diet of the newborn:

Protein is essential for growth and for the repair of cells. Most of the major body organs are composed mainly of protein. If the body doesn’t receive an adequate amount of protein, it begins to break down its muscles to supply protein to the brain and to make enzymes.

Carbohydrates supply most of the body’s energy needs. Carbohydrates are necessary for infant’s health. Carbohydrates are stored in the liver and muscles.

Fats are a concentrated source of energy. They help protect body organs, vessels, and nerves, provide insulation against changes in temperature, and act as a vehicle for absorption of some vitamins. Although it is important for adults to limit their fat intake, infants and young children should not be on a fat-restricted or low-fat diet.

Water is absolutely essential for human life. Water accounts for 70 to 75 percent of the newborn’s weight, compared with only 60 to 65 percent of an adult’s body weight. To remain healthy, an infant must take in larger amounts of water per unit of the body weight that an adult. The daily amount of water required is between 10 to 15 percent of the infant’s body weight.

Minerals are important to the structure of virtually every part of the body. For example, calcium and fluoride are necessary for the formation of strong bones and teeth, copper and iron are required for the production of red blood cells, and sodium is needed to maintain the water balance in the body.

Vitamins are substances required by the body in minute amounts. Some of the necessary vitamins include vitamin A, which is needed for eyes and to keep the linings of the bronchial, urinary, and intestinal tracts healthy; vitamin C is needed for the development of bones, blood vessels, and other tissues; and vitamin D, which is also needed for the development of bones and teeth.

Nowadays it is proved that the ideal feeding method is breastfeeding. Breastfeeding has nutritional and immunological advantages and emotional benefits. Many newborns are fed every 4 hours. Most babies need 8 to 10 feedings daily in the first couple of months. Some babies may want to feed hourly.

Ex. 15. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:

Штучне вигодовування; грудне вигодовування; молочна суміш; грудне молоко; вигода, користь; пропонувати; збільшення ваги; речовина, що пов'язує|єднальний|; живлення|харчування|, годування; вуглевод; завдання|задача|, мета|ціль|; підсилювати|посилювати|, покращувати; їжа; фактично, практично, по суті; основне живлення|харчування|; концентроване джерело енергії; необхідна кількість води.

 

Ex. 16. Translate the text “Newborn’s Nutrition” into Ukrainian:

Ex. 17. Insert the missing words:

1. The _ of feeding newborn is to help the baby grow. 2. The newborn does not have a varied _. 3. If the mother is _, the baby will be nourished by breast milk. 4. If the newborn has bottle-feeding, he/she will be given _. 5. The baby _ as much as is needed. 6. The best indication that the baby is receiving the necessary nourishment is weight _. 7. The basic diet of the newborn and child must include proteins, _, fats, water, minerals, and vitamins. 8. Proteins are essential for growth and for the _ of cells. 9. Carbohydrates _ most of the body’s energy needs. 10. Fats are a concentrated _ of energy. 11. Water is absolutely essential for human _. 12. Minerals are important to the structure of every part of the _. 13. Vitamin A is needed for eyes and to keep the _ of the bronchial, urinary, and intestinal tracts healthy. 14. Vitamin C is needed for the development of bones, blood _, and other tissues. 15. Vitamin D is needed for the _ of bones and teeth. 16. Nowadays it is proved that the ideal _ method is breastfeeding.

Ex. 18. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the goal of the newborn’s feeding? 2. What types of newborn’s feeding are there? 3. How much and how often does the newborn eat? 4. What is the indication that the baby is receiving the necessary nourishment? 5. What are the components of the basic diet of newborn? 6. Why are proteins essential? 7. What is the role of carbohydrates? 8. What do the fats provide? 9. Why is water essential for newborn? 10. Why are the minerals important? 11. Why are the vitamins required by the body of newborn?

 

Ex. 19. Insert the prepositions:

BREAST FEEDING

In most cases, breast milk is the most perfect food _ the baby. Breast milk contains easily digestible proteins, many factors that support new baby's immature immune system, and other factors that aid _ digestion. Breast fed babies are also less likely to have colic, upper respiratory infections, ear infections, constipation, asthma or allergies. And breast feeding will burn up almost 500 of mom's calories each day. Despite all of these advantages _ breast feeding, you should not feel guilty if you decide that you would rather feed your baby formula. There are many formulas available that will provide your baby _ good nutrition to promote its growth and development.





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