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INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND THEIR TYPES



The infectious diseases are caused by the following types of organisms: bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, helminthes.

Bacteria are one-cell organisms that are visible only under a microscope. They appear as slender rods or groups of round cells and are able to live and multiply by subdivision. When infectious bacteria gain entry to the human body, they multiply and may produce powerful chemicals, called toxins. A few of the common groups of bacteria that cause disease are Staphylococci, Streptococci, Chlamydia, Haemophilus, Gonococci, and Rickettsia. Not all bacteria are harmful. Some bacteria that reside in the body are beneficial.

A virus is a minute microorganism consisting of the one or more molecules of either DNA or RNA and covered by a protein coat. Viruses grow and multiply themselves only when they have invaded living cells.

The types of fungi are molds, yeasts, and mushrooms. Obviously, mushrooms are not infectious, but certain yeasts and molds can be. Of the thousands that are harmless or even helpful, only about 100 cause disease.

Protozoaare single-cell organisms that may live within a person as a parasite. Often these organisms spend part of their life cycle outside of humans, living in food, soil, water, or insects. Many protozoa reside in the intestinal tract and are harmless, although some may cause disease.

The word “helminth” comes from Greek word helmins, meaning “worm”. Helminths are among the larger parasites. If they enter the body, they take up residence in the intestinal tract, lungs, liver, skin, or even brain.

So, some infectious diseases are bacterial, some are viral, and still others have other causes. The most common infectious diseases that affect only one organ or body system are: glossitis, gingivostomatitis, oral thrush, salivary gland infections (diseases of the mouth); botulism, encephalitis, meningitis, poliomyelitis (infections of the central nervous system); trachoma (infections of the eyes), acute viral gastroenteritis, Whipple’s Disease, peritonitis (infections of gastrointestinal tract); bronchiolitis, acute bronchitis, Legionnaires’ Disease, tuberculosis (infections of the respiratory system); impetigo, dermatitis (infections of the skin); infectious arthritis (joint disorder).

Some diseases affect multiple systems of the body. They are called “generalized infections”. They are: HIV infections and AIDS, influenza, typhoid fever, tetanus, rabies and others.

Common contagious diseases are common viral colds, measles, roseola, whooping cough, croup, chickenpox, mumps, diphtheria, and scarlet fever.

Parasitic infestations are malaria, tapeworm, trichinosis and others.

Some infestations are caused by small insects that attach themselves to the skin and feed off the blood. They are known as insect infestations, for example: lice, fleas, and ticks.

Bacteria and viruses transmitted by sexual contact can cause various sexually transmitted diseases. Gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, and syphilis are bacterial in origin. Herpes and venereal warts are viral infections.

 

Ex. 8. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:

Виглядати; послідовне ділення;|поділ,розподіл,поділка|; отримати доступ; цілющий; пліснявий грибок; оселятися; тиф; застуда; глосит; черевний тиф; бородавка.

 

Ex. 9. Translate text “Infectious Diseases and Their Types” into Ukrainian.

 

Ex. 10. Put 8-10 questions on the text “Infectious Diseases and Their Types” and be ready to answer them.

Ex. 11. Insert the missing words:

1. The infectious diseases are caused by the following types of organisms: bacteria, viruses, _, protozoa, and _ . 2. Some infectious diseases are bacterial, some are viral, and still others have other _ . 3. The most common infectious diseases, that affects only one organ or body system are: glossitis, oral thrush, salivary gland infections, encephalitis, _ , poliomyelitis, trachoma, peritonitis, _ , tuberculosis, _ and others. 4. Some diseases _ multiple systems of the body. 5. They are: HIV infections and AIDS, _ , typhoid fever, tetanus, _ and others. 6. When infectious bacteria gain entry to the human body, they multiply and may produce _ chemicals, called toxins.

 

Ex. 12. Make up sentences using the following words:

1. and / contagious / are / whooping cough / common / diseases / viral colds / measles / chickenpox /mumps / diphtheria / scarlet fever. 2. parasitic / are / malaria / infestations / and / tapeworm / others / trichinosis 3. infestations / that / themselves / and / feed off / the blood / some / are / by / small / caused / insects / attach / to the skin. 4. bacteria / and / can / various / sexually / transmitted / cause / viruses / diseases.

 

Ex. 13. Complete the following table:

Term Definition
bacteria  
virus  
protozoa  
helminth  

 

Ex. 14. List the infectious diseases concerning the following groups:

a) organ or body system diseases; b) generalized infections; c) common contagious diseases; d) parasitic infestations; e) insect infestations; f) sexually transmitted diseases.

 

Ex. 15. Speak on the infectious diseases.

 





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