Ex. 16. Compose the dialogue using the information of the text “Infectious Diseases and their Types”.


Ex. 17. Read the following abstract and retell it:


There are four subgroups of the infectious diseases. Intestinal infections compose the first subgroup. They are spread through the intestines and stools. Dysentery is an example.

The infections of the respiratory tract compose the second group. They are spread during coughing and talking. The diseases of this subgroup are diphtheria, smallpox and others.

The diseases of the third subgroup are spread through the skin and mucosa. Herpes and lichen (лишай) are the examples.

Blood infections compose the fourth subgroup. These diseases are spread by insects. Encephalitis is an example.


Ex. 18. Make up a dialogue using the following sentences:

Have you had direct contact with a sick infected person? Чи був у вас контакт з інфікованим хворим?  
Have you been inoculated against tetanus? Чи є у вас щеплення проти правця?  
Avoid contact with an infected patient. You may get infected. Уникайте контакту з інфікованим хворим. Ви можете інфікуватися.  
This vaccine confers immunity against … . Ця вакцина викликає імунітет проти … .
Revaccination must be done in 5 years. Повторне щеплення (ревакцинація) повинна проводитись через 5 років.  
The patient must be isolated. Хворого потрібно ізолювати.
Decontaminate the patient’s discharge. Проведіть знезараження виділень хворого.  
Treat the patient’s hair with antiparasitic remedies. Обробіть волосся хворого протипаразитарними засобами.
The epidemic center has been liquidated. The epidemic (pandemic) has abated. Епідемічне вогнище знешкоджено. Епідемія стихла.


The infectious diseases are caused by the following types of organisms: bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminthes. So, some infectious diseases are bacterial, some are viral, and still others have other causes. The most common infectious diseases that affect only one organ or body system are: glossitis, oral thrush, salivary gland infections, encephalitis, meningitis, poliomyelitis, trachoma, peritonitis, acute bronchitis, tuberculosis, dermatitis and others. Some diseases affect multiple systems of the body. They are: HIV infections and AIDS, influenza, typhoid fever, tetanus, rabies and others. Common contagious diseases are common viral colds, measles, whooping cough, chickenpox, mumps, diphtheria, and scarlet fever. Parasitic infestations are malaria, tapeworm, trichinosis and others. Some infestations are caused by small insects that attach themselves to the skin and feed off the blood. They are lice, fleas, and ticks. Bacteria and viruses can cause various sexually transmitted diseases. They are gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, syphilis, and herpes.




past [pAst] мимо; за, по той бік defense [dI'fens] захист humoral ['hju:m(q)rql] гуморальний, опосередкований антитілами cell-mediated ["sel'medIeItId] клітинно-опосередкований parasite ['pxrqsQIt] паразит derive [dI'rQIv] виводити; отримувати; добувати; породжувати derived [dI'raIvd] похідний, вторинний thymus gland ['TQImqs 'glxnd] тимус, вилочкова (зобна) залоза dissolved[dI'zOlvd] розчинений transparent [trxns'pFqr(q)nt] прозорий germ [Gq:m] мікроорганізм recover [rI'kAvq] відновлювати; видужувати suppress [sq'pres] припиняти; стримувати eliminate [I'lImIneIt] знищувати, ліквідувати in response to [rIs'pOns] у відповідь наexposure [Iks'pquZq] зараження, контакт з джерелом зараження; стимуляція; експозиція majority[mq'GOrItI] більшість encounter [In'kQuntq] наштовхнутися engulf [In'gAlf] поглинати fungi(sing. fungus)['fAnGaI] гриби; грибки protozoa ["prqutqu'zqu] протозоа, прості одноклітинні тваринні організми helminth ['helmInT] глист, паразитний глист


Ex. 1. Familiarize yourself with the following material:

Prefixes and term-elements:



macro- (large)


Ex. 2. Read and translate the following words:

A. Intercellular, interspersed, interdependence; intercostal; interaction; international; interrelate; intermediate; interphase.

B.Intracellular, intravenous; intramuscular; intracranial; intracardiac; intrapleural; intrathoracic; intraspinal.

C. Macrocephalia; macromolecule; macrophage.


Ex. 3. Familiarize yourself with the data of the following table:



Tense Active Voice Passive Voice
Present V, V+s am (is, are) + V3
Past V2 was (were) + V3
Future will (shall) + V will (shall) + be + V3


Ex. 4. Insert the correct forms of the verbs and translate the sentences into Ukrainian:

1. Immune system (to design) by nature millions of years ago to aid the body in recovering from injuries and illnesses. 2. The lymph (to flow) from the capillaries in all parts of the body into the lymphatic vessels. 3. Although we (to inhale) and (to eat) thousands of germs every day, the immune system (to prevent) the spread of various diseases. 4. We (to bear) with a genetically based natural defense system. 5. Diabetes (to occur) when the cells in the pancreas are destroyed. 6. Your immune system (to need) help to function at the highest capacity. 7. Sticky mucus in respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts (to trap) many microorganisms.

Ex. 5. Determine the tense-forms of the predicates in the following sentences:

1. Foreign substances enter the body and cause the manufacture of antibodies. 2. Various bacteria live in the nose and mouth. 3. An anaerobe is a microorganism that can live without oxygen, while an aerobe requires oxygen. 4. Some macrophages are concentrated in the lungs, liver, lining of the lymph nodes and spleen. 5. B cells are produced in the stem cells of the bone marrow. 6. Phagocytes dissolve and destroy bacteria, viruses, and fungi. 7. The lymph nodes are usually distributed in groups.

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