Textbook; homework; stomachache; toothache; gallbladder; cheeckbone; eyebrow.



V + -ing

Ex. 3. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the verbal nouns:

1. The reading of this article is necessary. 2. The using of this method has been known for over 152 years. 3. What are the readings of this device? 4. The bleeding was severe. 5. The remodeling is responsible for the formation of new osteons in compact bone. 6. The prominent openings into the skull are orbits and the nasal cavity.


Ex. 4. Read VOCABULARY and memorize new words.

Ex. 5. Compose 2-3- sentences using the words of VOCABULARY.

Ex. 6. Insert the missing letters and translate the following words and word-combinations:

S_napse; effer_nt; menin_es; h_pothalamus; den_rite; vis_era; sp_nal cord; brain_tem; dura m_ter; a_on; arac_noid; ne_ron.

Ex. 7. Read the following words and word-combinations:

Neuron; branching fiber; chemical; peripheral; spinal cord; vertebrae; meninges; liquid; numerous; sources; primarily; potential; muscle; blood flow; sweating.

Ex. 8. Read the following text:


The nervous system is the human's information center and control system. The basic unit in the system is the nerve cell, called neuron. A neuron consists of a cell body, one major branching fiber (axon), and numerous smaller branching fibers (dendrites). Each neuron is connected to other neurons by synapses on the axons and dendrites. A neuron receives chemical signals from other neurons through the synapses. All of these incoming signals are combined as an electrical signal within the neuron, and it may or may not send an outgoing chemical signal down its axon to another set of synapses. The nervous system can be divided into central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS).

The CNS processes information, initiates responses, and integrates mental processes. The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. The brain is protected by the skull, and the spinal cord is protected by the vertebrae. Three connective tissue layers (the meninges) surround and protect the brain and spinal cord. They are dura mater (outermost), arachnoid (middle), and pia mater (innermost). In addition, a liquid called cerebrospinal fluid, between the arachnoid and pia mater, protects the brain and spinal cord from injury.

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of cranial part, consisting of 12 pairs of nerves, and spinal part, consisting of 31 pairs of nerves. The PNS collects information from numerous sources both inside and on the surface of the individual and relays it by way of afferent fibers to the central nervous system. Efferent fibers in the PNS relay information from the CNS to various parts of the body, primarily to muscles and glands. Peripheral nerves run from the spinal cord to all parts of the body. The parts of this system are named for the four spinal regions from which they branch: neck (cervical), chest (thoracic), lower back (lumbar), and pelvis (sacral). The spinal cord acts as a central communication network to transmit signals back and forth between the brain and peripheral nervous system. Two subdivisions comprise the PNS: the afferent, or sensory, division and the efferent, or motor, division. Afferent neurons carry action potentials from the periphery to the CNS, and efferent neurons carry action potentials from the CNS to the periphery. The efferent neurons belong to either the somatomotor (somatic) nervous system, which supplies skeletal muscles, or to the autonomic nervous system (ANS), which supplies smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands. The ANS regulates the activities of viscera such as the heart, blood vessels, digestive organs and reproductive organs. This system controls distribution of blood flow, regulation of blood pressure, heartbeat, sweating, and body temperature.

Various forms of nerve cells.

A. Pyramidal cell. B. Small multipolar cell, in which the axon quickly divides into numerous branches. C. Small fusiform cell. D and E. Ganglion cells (E shows T-shaped division of axon).

ax. Axon. c. Capsule.

Ex. 9. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:

Дендрит; стовбур головного мозку; аксон |клітини|; включати; синапс; поглинати; аферентний; внутрішні органи; мозкова оболонка; спинний мозок; павутинна оболонка (мозку); м'яка мозкова оболонка; тверда мозкова оболонка.


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