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Ex. 9. Translate the text “Measles” into Ukrainian.



Ex. 10. Insert the missing words:

The cause of measles is a _. The virus lives in the mucus in the nose and throat of an infected child or _. That child or adult is _ from four days before the rash appears to four days after. When someone with _ coughs, sneezes or talks, infected droplets spray into the air, where other people can inhale them. The infected droplets may also land on a surface where they remain active and _ for several hours. You can contract the _ by putting your fingers in your mouth or nose after touching the infected surface.

Once the virus gets inside your _, it typically grows in the cells that line the back of the throat and lungs. The infection then spreads throughout the body, including the respiratory system and the _.

Ex. 11. Answer the following questions:

1. What is measles? 2. How many cases of measles occur worldwide each year? 3. What is the cause of measles? 4. In what cases is the measles vaccine a highly effective? 5. What are the symptoms and signs of measles? 6. How does measles begin? 7. What is the next step? 8. What is the treatment for measles? 9. What is the prevention for measles?

Ex. 12. Match the following words with their definitions:

1. Over-the-counter. 2. Virus. 3. Vaccination. 4. Serum. 1. Deliberate introduction of an antigen into a subject to stimulate the immune system and produce immunity to the antigen. 2. Tiny organism that causes disease. 3. Medications sold without a prescription. 4. Fluid portion of blood after the removal of fibrin and blood cells.

 

Ex. 13. Insert the prepositions and name the complications of measles:

COMPLICATIONS OF MEASLES

Measles usually lasts about 10 _ 14 days. In some parts of the world, the disease is severe, even deadly. _ Western countries, that's usually not the case. People _ measles may become quite ill, but most people recover completely. However, complications may include:

Ear Infection. Measles causes an ear infection in nearly one out of every 10 children.

Encephalitis. About one in 1,000 people with measles develops encephalitis, an inflammation _ the brain caused _ a viral infection, which may cause vomiting, convulsions and, rarely, coma. Encephalitis can closely follow measles, or it can occur years later during adolescence as a result _ a slow virus infection. The late form, called Dawson's encephalitis, is rare.

Pneumonia. As many as one in 15 with measles gets pneumonia, which can be life-threatening.

Diarrhea or Vomiting. These complications are more common _ infants and small children.

Bronchitis, Laryngitis or Croup. Measles may lead _ inflammation of your voice box (larynx) or inflammation of the inner walls that line the main air passageways of your lungs (bronchial tubes).

Pregnancy Problems. Pregnant women need to take special care to avoid measles, because the disease can cause miscarriage, premature labor or babies _ low birth weights.

Low Platelet Count (thrombocytopenia). Measles may lead to a decrease _ platelets – the type _ blood cells that are essential _ blood clotting.

Ex. 14. Write out key words of the text “Measles”.

Ex. 15. Make up a plan of the text “Measles”.

Ex. 16. Give a summary of the text “Measles”.

Ex. 17. Speak on the causes, symptoms, and treatment of measles.

Ex. 18. Make up a dialogue on treatment of measles.

 

Ex. 19. Pronounce and memorize the words to the theme studied:

Catarrhal [kq'ta:rql] катаральний; prodromal stage ['prOdrqmql] продромальний (початковий) період; height of the disease [haIt] розпал хвороби; eruption висип; spots плями Бельского-Філатова; branny desquamation ["deskwq'meISn] висівкоподібне лущення; convalescence ["kOnvq'lesns] одужання.

 

Ex. 20. Read and translate the following text:

SOME NOTIONS ABOUT MEASLES

I have two patients who have measles. Measles is an infectious disease. It is dangerous for children as well as grown-ups, but mild cases are dangerous neither for children nor for grown-ups. Although measles is a communicable disease, it is less communicable that many other infectious diseases. Now measles is a preventable disease.

Clinical manifestations of measles are fever, catarrhal symptoms in eyes, nose, throat in the prodromal stage, as well as at the height of the disease, an early eruption in the mouth and spots, later a branny desquamation during convalescence.

Both my patients are at home in a separate room as they have a large family and contact with them is dangerous. They are not in an infection hospital as they have a mild form of measles.

 

Ex. 21. Answer the following questions:

1. How many patients does the doctor have? 2. What are they ill with? 3. For whom is measles dangerous? 4. What do we call a disease, which passes from one person to another? 5. Is measles preventable now? 6. What cases of measles aren’t dangerous? 7. Why are the patients in a separate room?

 

Ex. 22. Insert the missing words(laboratory; preventable; mild; measles; eruption; analyses; fever; clinical characteristics):

1. The child at the right window has _. 2. It is a _ case. 3. _ and catarrhal symptoms in eyes, nose and throat are _ _ of measles. 4. Doctor Smirnov says that the child has _ in the mouth. 5. Measles is a _ disease now. 6. They make different _ at the _ in the clinic.

 

OVERVIEW

Measles is primarily a respiratory infection caused by a highly contagious virus. The virus lives in the mucus in the nose and throat of an infected child or adult. Measles symptoms and signs include: fever; dry cough; runny nose; inflamed eyes (conjunctivitis); sensitivity to light; and tiny red spots found inside the mouth on the inner lining of the cheek. Measles typically begins with a mild to moderate fever, accompanied by a persistent cough, runny nose, inflamed eyes and sore throat. Two or three days later, Koplik's spots appear. No treatment can get rid of an established measles infection. However, nonimmunized infants may be given the measles vaccination within 72 hours of exposure to the measles virus, to provide protection against the disease. Pregnant women, infants and people with weakened immune systems may receive an injection of proteins (antibodies).

 

LESSON 65

REVISION

I. Read and translate one of the following texts:

Text A

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

As in the male, female reproduction is under the control of hormonal and nervous regulation. Development of the female reproductive organs and normal function depend on the relative levels of a number of hormones in the body.

The female reproductive system consists of ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, external genital organs, and mammary glands. The female reproductive system produces ova and provides a place for the embryo growth.

There are two fallopian tubes (also called uterine tubes) one on each side of the uterus. Each of these tubes contains a passageway no wider than a needle. The fallopian tubes transport the oocyte or zygote (the fertilized oocyte) from the ovary to the uterus.

Two ovaries are small organs approximately 2 to 3.5 cm long and 1 to 1.5 cm wide. They are located in pelvic cavity. Between puberty and menopause, the ovaries generally release one egg each month. They also produce the female sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone). The union of the male and female sex cells in humans takes place within the female body. Fertilization is the process of penetrating the secondary oocyte by the spermatozoon. It is completed with the fusion of the male and female pronuclei. If fertilization takes place, the new cell formed begins a nine-month period of development within the uterus.

The size and shape of the uterus is as a medium-sized pear and is approximately 7.5 cm long and 5 cm wide. The walls of uterus are thick and consist of three layers: serous, muscular, and mucous. The powerful muscles contract during childbirth to push the baby out.

The narrow neck of the uterus is called the cervix, and it also has thick walls. The mucus fills the cervical canal and acts as a barrier to substances that could pass from the vagina into the uterus. Ordinarily, the opening of the cervix is exceedingly small. During childbirth, the cervical opening expands to allow passage of the baby.

The cervix extends into vagina, which is a muscular tube about 10 cm long. The wall of the vagina consists of an outer muscular layer and an inner mucous membrane. Most of the time the walls of vagina touch, but they can expand to accommodate a baby. The internal reproductive organs are held in place within the pelvis by a group of ligaments.

The opening to vagina is protected by external genitals.

Mammary glands are the organs of milk production and are located within breasts. The mammary glands are modified sweat glands. Externally, the breasts of both males and females have a raised nipple surrounded by a circular, pigmented areola (pl. areolae). The female breasts begin enlarging during puberty under the influence of estrogen and progesterone.

Text B

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

The main function of the male reproductive system is producing sperm cells and transporting them to the female reproductive system.

The male reproductive system consists of the testes (or testicles), epididymides, ductus deferentia, urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, scrotum, and penis. Sperm cells are very temperature sensitive and do not develop normally at usual body temperatures. The testes and epididymides are located outside the body cavity where the temperature is low.

The testes are contained in a pouch of skin, called the scrotum. In each testis there is a tightly packed mass of coiled tubes surrounded by a protective capsule. At puberty the testes begin to produce the sperm cells (spermatozoa) that are used in reproduction. This process continues throughout life. In addition to producing sperm cells the testes secrete the male hormone testerone, which plays an important role in the development and maintenance of the typical masculine physical characteristics, such as facial hair, greater muscle mass and strength, and a deeper voice. The sperm cells are constantly being produced within each testis. They are transported through the epididymides and the ductus deferentia and then stored in the seminal vesicles. The mixture of the sperm cells with the fluids formed by the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland forms the semen that is ejaculated during sexual activity. Although sperm cells make up only a small portion of the semen, a single ejaculation contains as many as 500 million sperm. After sexual intercourse, one of these cells may reach and fertilize an egg in the female. The prostate gland contributes fluids to the semen. As a man ages, the prostate gland frequently enlarges. The urethra, which runs the length of the penis through its center, carries urine during voiding and semen during ejaculation. The urethra exits from the pelvis and passes through the penis to the outside of the body.

Text C

INFERTILITY

Infertility is a common problem in partners. Fortunately, major advances have been made in recent decades, and the problem of infertility can be solved in many cases. Problems of infertility can include problems with the sperm, problems with egg, or difficulties encountered in their union. Abnormal function of the fallopian tube or uterus, infections, and immunologic and other factors may also cause infertility. Infertility problems also can result from sexual dysfunction.

To physicians, the term infertility usually means the inability to become pregnant after 1 year of frequent sexual intercourse without using any contraception.

Ten to 15 percent of couples are infertile. Of these couples, the man is the infertile partner in about 30 percent of cases and contributes to the infertility problem in an additional 20 percent of cases; the woman is infertile 50-70 percent of the time. In both men and women, various factors can account for infertility. Forty percent of infertile couples have more than one cause of their infertility. Thus, the physician will begin a comprehensive infertility examination of both partners.

The most cause of infertility in men is a slow sperm cell count. Normal sperm counts range from 75,000,000 to 400,000,000 sperm cells. If the sperm cell count drops to 20,000,000 sperm cells per milliliter, the male is usually sterile. Decreased sperm cell count can occur because of damage to the testes (e.g., because of mumps, radiation, or trauma), obstruction of the duct system, or inadequate hormone production.

In women, the failure to release an egg, is responsible for infertility problems in up to 15 percent of cases. It can be caused by various factors. We know of uterine’s and immunologic factors’ being a cause of infertility.

In some cases the physicians don’t know exactly the reasons of infertility’s occurring.

The numerous treatments for infertility depend on the cause. Recent developments in therapy have increased the number of once-infertile couples who can achieve pregnancy. Various means of insemination or embryo transfer may be possible so that the woman can still become pregnant.

Text D

BREAST CANCER

Breast canceris the disease women fear most. Experts predict 178,000 women will develop breast cancer in the United States in 2007. Breast cancer can also occur in men, but it's far less common. For 2007, the predicted number of new breast cancers in men is 2,000.

Yet there's more reason for optimism than ever before. In the last 30 years, doctors have made great strides in early diagnosis and treatment of the disease and in reducing breast cancer deaths. In 1975, a diagnosis of breast cancer usually meant radical mastectomy – removal of the entire breast along with underarm lymph nodes and muscles underneath the breast. Today, radical mastectomy is rarely performed. Instead, there are more and better treatment options, and many women are candidates for breast-sparing operations.

Knowing the signs and symptoms of breast cancer may help save your life. When the disease is discovered early, you have more treatment options and a better chance for a cure.

Most breast lumps aren't cancerous. Yet the most common sign of breast cancer for both men and women is a lump or thickening in the breast. Often, the lump is painless. Other potential signs of breast cancer include: a spontaneous clear or bloody discharge from your nipple, often associated with a breast lump, retraction or indentation of your nipple, a change in the size or contours of your breast, any flattening or indentation of the skin over your breast, redness or pitting of the skin over your breast, like the skin of an orange, a number of conditions other than breast cancer can cause your breasts to change in size or feel. Breast tissue changes naturally during pregnancy and your menstrual cycle. Other possible causes of noncancerous (benign) breast changes include fibrocystic changes, cysts, fibroadenomas, infection or injury.

If you find a lump or other change in your breast – even if a recent mammogram was normal – see your doctor for evaluation. If you haven't yet gone through menopause, you may want to wait through one menstrual cycle before seeing your doctor. If the change hasn't gone away after a month, have it evaluated promptly.

A diagnosis of breast cancer is one of the most difficult experiences you can face. In addition to coping with a potentially life-threatening illness, you must make complex decisions about treatment.

Treatments exist for every type and stage of breast cancer. Most women will have surgery and an additional (adjuvant) therapy such as radiation, chemotherapy or hormone therapy. Experimental treatments are also available at cancer treatment centers.

Text E

WHOOPING COUGH

Whooping cough – known medically as pertussis – is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. Although it initially resembles an ordinary cold, whooping cough may eventually turn more serious, particularly in infants. In the more advanced stages, it's marked by the symptom that gives the disease its name: a severe, hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like "whoop."

Whooping cough is more serious in children, especially infants younger than 6 months of age.

Once you become infected with the bacterium that causes whooping cough, it takes a few days to a few weeks for signs and symptoms to appear. When they do, they're usually mild at first and resemble those of a common cold, such as: a runny nose, nasal congestion, sneezing, red, watery eyes, a mild fever, dry cough, general feeling of being unwell and loss of appetite, after a week or two, signs and symptoms become worse and usually include: severe coughing attacks that bring up thick phlegm.

Coughing attacks that end with a high-pitched whoop sound as you gasp for air. These may be so severe that your child vomits or turns red or blue from the effort.

Fatigue from coughing so much. In adults, signs and symptoms of whooping cough may resemble those of bronchitis, a respiratory infection that causes a nagging cough – you may have heard it referred to as the "100-day cough." Babies and infants with whooping cough may not whoop at all, or at least not as loudly as older children do. Some children with whooping cough may experience choking spells and turn blue in the face as they struggle to breathe after a coughing fit.

Severe coughing can result in tiny red spots caused by ruptures in blood vessels at the skin's surface (petechiae) in your upper body, as well as small areas of bleeding in the whites of your eyes. You may even bruise or break a rib if your coughing episodes are severe. Coughing may be worse at night.

Even after treatment to destroy the bacteria, your body continues to repair the damage to the lining of your trachea. As a result, the cough often lingers after the initial illness. With time, coughing usually lessens but can persist for six weeks or longer. Some people may even experience recurring episodes of coughing over the course of a year, especially when they contract a cold or other respiratory infection.

Text F





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