Urinary Tract and Bladder Cancer

Warning signs: blood in the urine, back pain, loss of weight and appetite, persistent fever, anemia.

Cancer risk factors: most common in men older 50, heavy smokers, and history of chronic urinary tract infections.


Ex. 23. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Рентген-терапія не призвела до сприятливих результатів при лікуванні раки шлунку. 2. Хворі зі|із| злоякісними пухлинами особливо схильні до різноманітних|усяких| ускладнень і захворювань. 3. Найнадійніше лікування пухлини – це її хірургічне видалення|віддалення|. 4. Пневмонія – найчастіше ускладнення у хворих на рак. 5. Така операція повинна запобігти проникненню ракових кліток|клітин| в мозок. 6. Виявивши пухлину, лікар|лікарка| зробив рентгенологічні і лабораторні досліджування.|

Ex. 24. Pronounce and memorize the meaning of the following terms:

Life-threatening [‘TretnIN] що загрожує життю; capable[‘keIpqbl] здатний (на); exhibit виявляти(ся); resemble [rI’zembl] походити, мати схожість; cessation [se’seIS(q)n] припинення; machinery [mq’SI:nqrI] механізм; induce викликати, стимулювати.


Ex. 25. Read and translate the following text:


Tumors are masses or growths, which arise from surrounding normal tissue. They may be either malignant (progressive and life-threatening) or benign (non-progressive and not life-threatening). Benign tumors display slow growth and are encapsulated. So that tumor cells cannot invade the surrounding tissue. Malignant tumor growth is invasive. It extends beyond the tissue of origin into adjacent organs. The major groups of malignant tumors are carcinomas, sarcomas, and mixed-tissue tumors.

A carcinoma is a malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue (glandular, skin, linings of internal organs). A sarcoma is a malignant tumor derived from connective tissue (blood, bone, muscle, fat, or cartilage). Mixed-tissue tumors are derived from tissue, which is capable of differentiating into epithelial as well as connective tissue.

Malignant neoplasms lack the normal growth control that is exhibited by most other adult tissues, and in many ways they resemble embryonic tissue. Rapid growth is one characteristic of embryonic tissue, but as the tissue begins to reach its adult size and function, it slows or stops growing completely. This cessation of growth is controlled at the individual cell level, cancer results when a cell or group of cells for some reasons breaks away from that control. This breaking loose involves the genetic machinery and can be induced by viruses, environmental toxins, and other causes. The illness associated with cancer usually occurs as the tumor invades and destroys the healthy surrounding tissue, eliminating its function. Malignant tumor can spread by local growth and expansion or by metastasis, which results from tumor cell’s separating from the main mass and being carried by the lymphatic or circulatory system to a new site where a second tumor is created.

There is no medicine to cure anybody from cancer. Scientists are trying to find the cure but they cannot find it. Very many sick people are waiting for this miraculous cure. It will help thousands of people that have cancer.


Ex. 26. Answer the following questions:

1. What is a tumor? 2. What types of tumors do you know? 3. What is the difference between benign and malignant tumors? 4. What groups of malignant tumors do you know? 5. What is a carcinoma? 6. What is sarcoma? 7. What does the malignant tumor lack? 8. How can malignant tumors spread?


Ex. 27. Match the term and its definition:

1. carcinoma a. term meaning essentially harmless; not progressive or recurrent.
2. benign b. cancerous tumor derived from epithelial tissues in the body.
3. malignant c. abnormal growth of tissue. It may be malignant (cancerous) or benign (noncancerous).
4. neoplasm d. new and abnormal growth.
5. sarcoma e. term used to describe cancerous tumors that can grow uncontrollably and spread (metastasize).
6. tumor f. cancerous tumor derived from connective tissue in the body.


Ex. 28. Read the following text, entitle it, and write new terms out. Retell the text:

Surgery has long been the foundation of cancer treatment. The goals of surgery can vary. It can be done to remove a cancerous growth from the body, or to learn if malignant cells have spread to other parts of the body. Surgery is most successful if the cancer has not spread.

Radiation therapy (X-ray therapy, radiotherapy, or irradiation) can be used to destroy cancer cells. Radiation therapy is either part of the treatment or the only treatment for about half of the patients. This form is effective only for the cancer cells within the area receiving the radiation. Radiation may be used before surgery to shrink a cancerous tumor, after surgery to stop growth of any remaining cancer cells, or alone or with anticancer drugs to destroy a malignant tumor. It is particularly effective when used to treat certain types of localized cancers such as malignant tumors of the lymph nodes or vocal cords. But radiology may produce troublesome side effects. They are swallowing difficulties, dry mouth, nausea, diarrhea, hair loss, and loss of energy.

Chemotherapy is the use of medications to treat cancer. For some types of malignancy chemotherapy may produce a cure, in other cases (when the cancer is not curable), it can relieve symptoms and enhance the quality of life for a patient. Cancer chemotherapy does not always mean the use of only a single drug. Combination chemotherapy consists of giving a group of drugs that work together to kill cancer cells. Anticancer drugs can affect normal tissue cells as well. Depending on the specific drugs used, chemotherapy can produce various side effects similar to those of radiation therapy. These toxic reactions include hair loss, sores in the mouth, difficulty swallowing, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, and infection. In general, these effects of chemotherapy and radiation are reversible.

Immunotherapy might involve the use of biological agents, known as lymphokines, that normally are produced by immunologically oriented cells. The best documented immunotherapeutic agents are interferon and interleukin-2.

Ex. 29. Having read the following text, compose short dialogues on it:



Cancer treatment is constantly evolving. Some of these methods are now accepted therapy, and others are under investigation and are experimental. Physicians often combine these approaches with chemotherapy and radiation.

T Cells. T cells recognize and attack cancer cells. Researchers hope to remove T cells from the body, stimulate growth, and return them in large numbers to fight cancer. Someday, vaccines may be available to promote growth of T cells.

Gene therapy. Many tumors grow because normal genes go awry, changing healthy cells into cancerous cells. Genes that help fight cancer can also fail to work properly. With gene therapy, physicians hope to replace defective genes and encourage the growth of healthy genes.

Laser. High-intensity light shows potential for treatment cancers of skin, trachea, lungs, esophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, and anus.

Hyperthermia. Since the early 1800s, physicians have known that heat can harm some tumors. Researchers now are evaluating hyperthermia to treat cancer of the breast, lymph nodes, skin, eyes, and cervix.



Cancer is characterized by abnormal growth of cells, which form tumors. It can develop in various tissues and organs of the human body. Cancer cells divide without restraint. They crowd normal cells out and affect their normal function and growth. Cancer cells can spread via the blood or lymph system to other parts of the body. Tumors are masses or growths, which arise from surrounding normal tissue. They may be either malignant or benign. Cells of benign tumors do not invade or destroy surrounding tissues. But the mechanism of cancer developing is not fully known. It is very dangerous disease. An early diagnosis identifies the type and location of the cancer. Cancer can be treated before it spreads to other organs or tissues. Cancer therapy confines and kills the malignant cells. This therapy includes using X-rays, surgical treatment, and chemotherapy.





immediate [I’mIdjqt] близький (про родичів) bloat [blqut] роздувати(ся), надувати(ся) confine[kqn'faIn] обмежувати offer [‘Ofq] пропонувати likelihood [‘laIklIhud] вірогідність alleviate [q’lI:vIeIt] полегшувати exclusively [Iks’klu:sIvlI] винятково, виключно recovery [rI’kAvqri] видужання, одужання; виліковування choose[Cu:z] обирати analgesic [“xnxl’GesIk] анальгезуючий, анальгетичний, болезаспокійливий


Ex. 1. Analyze the structure of the following terms and translate them into Ukrainian:

Histopathological; cytoplastic; neoplastic; hydrocarbon; laryngectomy; cytoplasm.


Ex. 2. Familiarize yourself with the data of the following table:



Tense (1) Questioning word (2) Auxiliary verb (3) Subject (4) Predicate Example
Present Simple Tense, Active Voice   What do does I, you, we they   he, she, it V (study, write) Do you study? Where does he study?
Past Simple Tense, Active Voice Where did I, he, she, it, you, we, they V (study, write) When did you go to the Academy?
Future Simple Tense, Active Voice When shall will I, we   he, she, it, you, they V (study, write) Where willthey go tomorrow?
Present Simple Tense, Passive Voice Why am is are I he, she, it you, we, they V3 (studied, written) Whereis this hospital built?
Past Simple Tense, Passive Voice How was were I, he, she, it   you, we they V3 (studied, written) What medicine wasyour doctor prescribed? Were the patients examined?  
Future Simple Tense, Passive Voice How many shall will I, we   he, she, it, you, they be + V3 (be studied, be written) When will the polyclinic be closed?
Present Continuous Tense, Active Voice How much   am is are I   he, she, it   you, we, they Ving (studying, writing) What is he writing now? What are you doing ?
Past Continuous Tense, Active Voice   was were I, he, she, it   you, we they Ving (studying, writing) Where was a doctor performing on the operation?
Future Continuous Tense, Active Voice   shall will I, we   he, she, it, you, they be + Ving (be studying, be writing) What will you be doing at 3 p.m.?
Present Continuous Tense, Passive Voice   am is are I   he, she, it   you, we, they being + V3 (being studied, being written) What hospital is your friend being operated on?
Past Continuous Tense, Passive Voice   was were I, he, she, it   you, we they being + V3 (being studied, being written) When was the work being fulfilled?
Present Perfect Tense, Active Voice   have has I, you, we they   he, she, it V3 (studied, written) What has he received this week?
Past Perfect Tense, Active Voice   had I, he, she, it, you, we, they V3 (studied, written) How many articles had the student read by 5 o’clock?
Future Perfect Tense, Active Voice   shall will I, we   he, she, it, you, they have + V3 (have studied, have written) What text will Helen have translated by 3 o’clock?
Present Perfect Tense, Passive Voice   have has I, you, we they   he, she, it been + V3 (been studied, been written) Has the text been translated today?
Past Perfect Tense, Passive Voice   had I, he, she, it, you, we, they been + V3 (been studied, been written) Where hadthe patient been examined?
Future Perfect Tense, Passive Voice   shall will I, we   he, she, it, you, they have + been + V3 (have been studied, have been written) When will the hospital have been modernized?

Ex. 3. Ask 5-6 questions concerning the theme “Cancer”.

Ex. 4. Turn the following sentences into interrogative:

1. The pancreas functions as both exocrine and endocrine organ. 2. These gases are removed from the body by exhalation through the lungs. 3. Each renal artery branches into many small arteries. 4. The kidney has filtered out of the blood the waste products. 5. The gums are made of fleshy tissue and surround the sockets in which the teeth are found. 6. The cause of malignant gastric tumor is unknown. 7. The gastrointestinal tract begins with the oral cavity. 8. More than 20 types of malignant and benign tumors have been identified as originating in the lungs. 9. The lungs extend from the collarbone to the diaphragm.




Ex. 5. Read VOCABULARY and memorize new words.

Ex. 6. Insert the missing letters:

Rec_very; allev_ate; confi_e; choo_e; of_er; blo_t; tumo_; stoma_h; can_er; chemot_erapy.


Ex. 7. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

1. Alleviate; gastric tumor; immediate; benign; choose; malignant; suggest; confine; bleeding; influence; vomiting of blood; recovery; exclusively; spread; offer; bloat; likelihood; however; catch; relieve; analgesic.

B. Tumors affect twice as many women as men; the most common early symptom; they are 2 to 4 times more common; there is no one symptom; weight loss; bloated feeling after meals; surgical removal offers the only chance to cure; the likelihood of success depends on; in addition to surgery.


Ex. 8. Translate the following words into English:

Одужання|видужання|, виліковування; болезаспокійливий; пропонувати; обирати, вибирати; роздувати, надувати; обмежувати; вірогідність|ймовірність|; бути|з’являтися,являтися| причиною, спричиняти|спричиняти|; рак; злоякісна пухлина шлунку; після|потім| їжі|їди|; видалити|знищувати,віддаляти| всі уражені ділянки.


Ex. 9. Read the following words and word-combinations:

Tumor; approximately; benign; microscopic; peptic ulcer; region of the abdomen; cure; offer; chance; exclusively; metastasize; the cancer is caught; recovery; relieve; advanced.


Ex. 10. Read the following text:



Most gastric tumors are malignant. They affect twice as many women as men, usually between the ages of 50 and 70. Approximately 1 of 10 stomach tumors is benign. Like the malignant tumors, the most common early symptom of a benign tumor may be microscopic bleeding that can be detected only by laboratory examination of the stool.

The cause of malignant gastric tumor is unknown. Genetic factors may have some influence. They are 2 to 4 times more common in members of the immediate family of people with the disease.

There is no one symptom that will suggest that the person has a malignant gastric tumor. One of every four persons with a malignant tumor has the same symptoms as someone with a peptic ulcer. They are discomfort in the upper or middle region of the abdomen, black stools, and vomiting after meals. But other symptoms are more serious: vomiting of blood, weight loss, anemia, and bloated feeling after meals.

Malignant tumor is difficult to treat. If the cancer is confined to the stomach, the chance of cure is good. However, the disease often has spread, and the chance of cure is then significantly decreased.

If the tumor is malignant, surgical removal offers the only chance to cure. The likelihood of success depends almost exclusively on whether the cancer has spread (metastasized) to other areas of the body. If the cancer is caught early and it is determined that surgery can remove all of the affected areas, full recovery is possible. Sometimes surgery may be recommended to alleviate pain, bleeding, or obstruction.

In addition to surgery for malignant tumors, the physician may choose chemotherapy as an additional treatment, using a number of anticancer medications. Radiation is sometimes used, but both radiation and chemotherapy can only relieve the symptoms, they do not cure the cancer. If the cancer is too far advanced for chemotherapy or surgery to be effective, analgesic drugs may be used to reduce pain.


Ex. 11. Translate the text “Stomach Tumor” into Ukrainian.


Ex. 12. Complete the following sentences:

1. The most common early symptom of a benign tumor is _. 2. Some persons with a malignant tumor may have the same symptoms as persons with _. 3. The most serious symptoms of a malignant tumor are _. 4. Surgical removal offers the only chance to cure in patients with _. 5. Full recovery is possible if the cancer is caught _.


Ex. 13. Insert the missing prepositions:

1. Approximately 5 percent _ stomach cancers are lymphomas. 2. The symptoms of lymphoma are very similar _ those of stomach cancer. 3. If persistent indigestion develops _ the first time in the persons’ life along with unexplained weight loss and nausea, the physician may want to obtain a barium X-ray or an endoscopic examination. 4. In most cases, these procedures will determine whether the symptoms are due _ a malignant tumor or to some other abnormalities.

Ex. 14. Answer the following questions:

1. Are the most gastric tumors benign? 2. What is the cause of malignant gastric tumor? 3. What are the symptoms of gastric tumor? 4. In what cases is the chance of cure good? 5. In what cases does the surgical removal offer the only chance to cure? 6. What does the likelihood of success depend on? 7. When may the physician choose chemotherapy as an additional treatment?


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