Ex. 3. Compose 2-3- sentences using the words of VOCABULARY.


Ex. 4. Insert the missing letters:

Folli_le; subc_taneous; t_in; de_mis; distri_ute; epi_ermis; el_stin; colla_en; constric_ion; fla_e; kera_in.


Ex. 5. Read the following words and word-combinations:

Subcutaneous; constitute; bulk; dermis; distribute; hazard; epidermis; elastin; collagen; keratin; cover; decrease; unevenly; replenish; approximately; unique; disappear; beneath; through; manufacturing; blood vessels; nerve fibers; once; dead cells; sweat; heat; become; texture; squamous; lie.

Ex. 6. Read the following text:



The skin is a unique organ. Approximately the 2 square meters of the skin, that cover the average adult, constitute 15 percent of the body's total weight. Approximately 2.5 square cm of the skin contain millions of cells and many specialized nerve endings for sensing heat, cold, and pain. In addition, each square centimeter contains numerous oil glands, hair follicles, and sweat glands. A complex network of blood vessels nourishes this structure.

The skin protects the internal organs. It serves as heat regulator. Capillaries and blood vessels in the skin dilate or constrict according to the body's temperature. When the person is hot, the sweat on the skin lowers the body's temperature. When the body is chilled, these blood vessels become narrowed, and the skin becomes pale and cold. This constriction decreases the flow of blood through the skin, reducing the heat loss and conserving heat for the main part of the body.

By its texture, temperature, and color the skin gives information about the general health. Sensory nerves send signals to the brain about hazards.

The skin is composed of three layers – the epidermis, the dermis, and the subcutaneous tissue.

The epidermis is the top layer of the skin the person sees. The outermost surface of the epidermis is made up of dead skin cells. Squamous cells lie just below the outer surface. Basal cells are at the bottom of the epidermis. The production of new cells, manufactured in the epidermis, takes approximately 1 month, to move upward to the outer surface. As the cells move away from their source of nourishment, they become smaller and flatter, changing into a lifeless protein called keratin. Once on the surface, they remain as a protective cover and then flake off as a result of washing and friction. Thus, the skin is a dynamic organ, constantly being replenished.

The dermis, found beneath the epidermis, makes up 90 percent of the bulk of the skin. It is a dense layer of strong, white fibers (collagen) and yellow, elastic fibers (elastin) in which blood vessels, muscle cells, nerve fibers, lymph channels, hair follicles, and glands are located. The dermis gives strength and elasticity to the skin.

Beneath the dermis the subcutaneous tissue lies. It is composed largely of fat and through which blood vessels and nerves run. This layer, which specializes in manufacturing fat, is unevenly distributed over the body. The roots of oil and sweat glands are located here. Subcutaneous tissue thins and disappears with aging.


Structure of Skin


Ex. 7. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Unique organ; for sensing heat and cold; in addition; hair follicles; according to the temperature; the body is chilled; subcutaneous tissue; the top layer; to move upward; the bulk of the skin; over the body; to distribute.


Ex. 8. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:

Підшкірний; нижня частина|частка|; складати; охолоджувати(ся)|охолоджувати|, замерзати; відшаровуватися, лущитися|злущуватися|; сальна залоза; поповнювати|доповнювати|(ся|ся|), оновлюватися|обновляти|; скорочення, стягання, звуження; основна маса, велика частина|частка|; небезпека, джерело небезпеки; розподіляти; робитися|чинити| тонким; загальна|спільна| вага тіла; спеціалізуватися у виробленні жирів; що знаходиться|перебуває| нижче за епідерміс; верхній шар; регулятор|регулювальник| тепла; на поверхні.


Ex. 9. Translate the text "Skin" into Ukrainian.


Ex. 10. Insert the missing words and word-combinations:

1. The skin _ many specialized nerve endings for sensing heat, cold, and pain. 2. The skin contains numerous _ , hair follicles, and sweat glands. 3. It _ as heat regulator. 4. Capillaries and blood vessels in the skin dilate or _ according to the body's temperature. 5. The epidermis is the _ layer. 6. The outermost _ of the epidermis is made up of dead skin cells. 7. Squamous cells lie just _ the outer surface. 8. The dermis, found beneath the epidermis, makes up 90 percent of the _ of the skin. 9. It is a dense _ of strong, white fibers and yellow, elastic fibers. 10. This layer includes blood vessels, muscle cells, nerve fibers, lymph channels, _ , and glands. 11. The _ gives strength and elasticity to the skin. 12. Beneath the dermis the _ lies. 13. It is composed largely of fat and _ which blood vessels and nerves run.


Ex. 11. Answer the following questions:

1. What is the skin composed of? 2. What is the function of the skin? 3. What is the mechanism reducing the heat loss? 4. What signal do sensory nerves send to the brain? 5. What substances compose the epidermis? 6. What is the structure of the dermis? 7. What is the function of dermis? 8. Where is the subcutaneous tissue? 9. What does it consist of?


Ex. 12. Make up the sentences using the following words and word-combinations:

1. capillaries / blood vessels / dilate / or / constrict / and / according to / the body's temperature / in / the skin. 2. dead skin cells / the outermost surface / the epidermis / of / is made up / of . 3. beneath / makes up / the dermis / found / 90 percent / of / the epidermis / the bulk / of the skin. 4. to / gives / strength / elasticity / the dermis / and / the skin. 5. collagen / the / connective / is / tissue / fibers. 6. is not / as thick / as the dermis / the epidermis. 7. is divided / layer / and / the dermis / into / reticular / papillary / one.


Ex. 13. Match the term and its definition:

1. gland a. the layer of skin beneath the epidermis.
2. dermis b. beneath the skin.
3. epidermis c. outermost layer of the skin.
4. subcutaneous d. protein of the extracellular matrix.
5. elastin e. secretory organ from which secretions may be released into the blood, a cavity, or onto a surface.
6. collagen f. major connective tissue protein of elastic tissue.


Ex. 14. Insert the missing words given bellow:

Cells that manufacture skin constitute about 95 percent of the _ . The remaining cells produce a black _, called melanin. Melanin provides the coloring of the skin and helps _ it from ultraviolet light. People of all races are born with the same _ of pigment cells. However, the rate at which melanin granules are formed in these cells and their degree of _ in the epidermis are inherited characteristics and major factors in skin color differences.


protect; pigment; epidermis; number; concentration.


Ex. 15. Insert the correct tense-forms for verbs in brackets:

1. The skin (to compose of) a layer of dense, irregular connective tissue called the dermis and (to cover) by a layer of epithelial tissue called the epidermis. 2. The dermis (to be) responsible for the most of the structural strength of the skin. 3. Nerve endings, hair follicles, smooth muscles, glands, and lymph channels (to extend) into the dermis. 4. The papillary layer (to derive) its name from projections called papillae that (to extend) toward the epidermis. 5. The papillary layer (to contain) a large number of blood vessels that (to supply) the overlying avascular epidermis with nutrients, (to remove) waste products, and (to aid) in regulating body temperature. 6. The epidermis (to separate) from the dermis by a basement membrane. 7. The epidermis (to contain) no blood vessels and (to derive) nourishment by diffusion from capillaries of the papillary layer. 8. Cells (to produce) in the deepest layer of the epidermis. 9. During the movement from the deeper epidermal layers to the surface, the cells (to undergo) keratinization, a process that (to involve) change in shape, structure, and chemical composition. 10. Skin color (to determine) by pigments in the skin and by blood circulating through the skin.


Ex. 16. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Шкіра захищає внутрішні органи людини і регулює температуру тіла. 2. Кровоносні судини|посудини|, що знаходяться|перебувають| в шкірі, скорочуються і розширюються відповідно до температури тіла, довколишнього середовища та відповідно до впливу деяких інших факторів. 3. Скорочення кровоносних судин|посудин| і капілярів| зменшує потік крові в шкірі. 4. Епідерміс – це верхній шар шкіри. 5. Дерма знаходиться|перебуває| під шаром епідермісу. 5. Підшкірна тканина складається здебільшого з жиру.


Ex. 17. Do you agree or disagree with the following statements:

1. Excretion is the removal of waste products from the body. 2. If you take care of the skin, you can prevent many skin disorders. 3. The intact skin does not form a physical barrier that prevents the entry of microorganisms and other foreign substances into the body. 4. The blood vessels in the dermis dilate and allow more blood to flow through the skin, thus transferring heat from deeper tissues to the skin. 5. As we age, skin doesn't lose elasticity and wrinkles don't form.


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