ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Ex. 17. Give a summary of the text “AIDS”.



Ex. 18. Make up the dialogue on the AIDS. You may begin some of your questions with the following phrases:

Could you tell me …

Do you happen to know…

Is it true that …

I know that …

I’d like to know if …

Would you explain why (how, where, what …)?

 

Ex. 19. Put the questions on the following text and answer them:

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS or Aids) is acollection of symptoms and infections resulting from the specific damage to the immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The late stage of the condition leaves individuals prone to opportunistic infectionsandtumors. Although treatments for AIDS and HIV exist to slow the virus's progression, there is no known cure. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood,semen,vaginal fluid, and breast milk. This transmission can come in the form of sex,blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic needles, exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy,childbirth, or breastfeeding, or other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids.

Most researchers believe that HIV originated in Africa during the twentieth century; it is now a pandemic, with an estimated 38.6 million people now living with the disease worldwide. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since it was first recognized on June 5,1981, making it one of the most destructive epidemicsinrecorded history. In 2005 alone, AIDS claimed an estimated 2.4–3.3 million lives, of which more than 570,000 were children. A third of these deaths are occurring in sub-Saharan Africa, retarding economic growth and destroying human capital.Antiretroviral treatment reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but routine access to antiretroviral medication is not available in all countries. HIV/AIDS stigma is more severe than that associated with other life-threatening conditions and extends beyond the disease itself.

 

Ex. 20. Skim through the text and say what it deals with:

HIV is transmitted in several ways, including sexual transmission, transmission through infected blood; it easily transmitted trough needles contaminated with infected blood and from infected mother to child. Each year, nearly 600,000 infants are infected with HIV, either during pregnancy or delivery or through breast feeding. The rate of mother-to-child transmission in resource-poor countries is as much as 40 percent higher than it is in the developed world. But if women receive treatment for HIV infection during pregnancy, the risk to their babies is significantly reduced. Combinations of HIV drugs may reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission even more.

WHO has been working with multiple partners to define and strengthen the normative guidance, policies and implementation of prevention, care and treatment of women and infants infected with HIV and AIDS.

 

OVERVIEW

AIDS is an immune deficient state caused by human immunodeficiency virus. HIV is transmitted by transfer of body fluids containing the virus. The major methods of transmission are sexual contact, the using of infected needles, and blood products. Once infected with HIV, most people have no symptoms and no indication that they are infected. However infected persons are able to transmit the virus to others. The signs and symptoms of AIDS are the following: fatigue, night sweats, chill or fever lasting for several weeks, weight loss, swelling of lymph nodes and others. AIDS can lead to pneumonia, skin cancer, meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis, progressive form of dementia and others. There are three main types of medications for HIV and AIDS. They are antiviral drugs, immune system boosters, and medications for prevention or treatment of opportunistic infections. But the effectiveness of standard treatments is limited by the state of immunodeficiency.

 

LESSON 45

ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

VOCABULARY

hormone ['hO:mqun] гормон pancreas ['pxNkrIqs] підшлункова залоза adrenal gland [qd'rInql] надниркова залоза pituitary gland [pI'tju(:)It(q)rI] гіпофіз thyroid (gland) ['TaIrO:Id] щитоподібна залоза parathyroid (gland) ["pxrq'TaIrO:Id] прищитоподібна залоза ovary ['quvqrI] яєчник testicle ['testIkl] яєчко markedly ['ma:ktlI] помітно; значно influence ['Influqns] впливати gonad ['gOunxd] статева залоза pineal gland ['pInIql] шишкоподібна залоза thymus (gland) ['TaImqs] загруднинна залоза, тимус in response to [rIs'pOns] у відповідь на burst [bq:st] вибух, спалах stimuli (sing. stimulus) ['stImjulaI] подразники, стимули adrenaline [xd'renqlIn] адреналін, епінефрин mammary gland ['mxmqrI] молочна залоза lacrimal gland ['lxkrImql] сльозна залоза sweat gland [swet] потова залоза target['ta:gIt] мішень protein ['prqutII:n] білок, протеїн glycoprotein ["glaIko'prqutII:n] глікопротеїн polypeptide ["pOlI'peptaId (tId)] поліпептид, поліпептидний amino acid ['xmIno 'xsId] амінокислота lipid ['lIpId ('lIpaId)] ліпід glandular ['glxndjulq] гландулярний, залозовий, такий, що стосується залози

 

WORD-BUILDING

Ex. 1. Familiarize yourself with the following material:

Prefixes and term-elements:

Over-

overstrain перенапруження

para-(near, beside; abnormal)

paracystic приміхуровий, такий, що розміщений біля міхура

parafunction парафункція, порушена або аномальна функция

per-(through)

pernasal черезносовий, такий, що виконується через ніс

poly-(many)

polymelia полімерія, потологія розвитку, що характеризується наявністю зайвих кінцівок

 

Ex. 2. Read and translate the following words:

A.Overweight; overgrowth; overestimate; overdose; overeating; overactivity; overabundance; overproduction.

B.Parathyroid; paramedical; paranasal; parafollicular.

C.Percutaneous; perfuse; peroral; perpendicular.

D.Polymorphonuclear; polyneuritis; polypeptide; polyclinic.

GRAMMAR:

Ex. 3. Familiarize yourself with the following grammar material:

INFINITIVE AND ITS FORMS

Інфінітив – це не особова форма дієслова, яка називає дію і відповідає на запитання що робити?, що зробити?: to write – писати Ознакою інфінітива є|з'являється,являється| частка|частка,часточка| to|. Інфінітив часто вживається без частки to після модальних дієслів та після деяких дієслів, що виражають сприймання за допомогою органів чуттів.

 

INFINITIVE ACTIVE PASSIVE
Indefinite V (to write) to be + V3 (to be written)
Continuous to be + Ving (to be writing)
Perfect to have + V3 (to have written) to have + been + V3 (to have been written)

 

Інфінітив у формі|у формі| Indefinite|вживається: якщо дія, яку він виражає, одночасна з дією, вираженою дієсловом-присудком речення; з дієсловами, щовиражають намір, надію, бажання і т.ін.Indefinite Infinitiveможе означати дію, майбутню по відношенню до дії, вираженої дієсловом-присудком |значить|:

He was the first dentist to speak to me about it. Він був першим стоматологом, який заговорив про це зі мною.
I want to become a doctor. Я хочу стати лікарем.
They conduct blood test to determine the amount of the hormones. Вони виконують аналіз крові для того, щоб встановити кількість гормонів.

Інфінітив у формі|у формі| Continuous| виражає тривалу дію, що відбувається одночасно з дією, вираженою дієсловом-присудком:

It was pleasant to be performing on the operation again. Було приємно знову проводити операцію.
He seems to be writing something. Він, здається, щось пише.

Інфінітив у формі|у формі| Perfect| виражає|виказує,висловлює| дію, що передує дії, вираженій дієсловом-присудком:

I am glad to have seen you. Я дуже радий, що ми побачилися з вами.

 

Ex. 4. Read and translate the following sentences:

1. It was very hard to pass entrance exams. 2. Cells are grouped into tissues, and each tissue type is specialized to perform specific functions. 3. Serious investigations were being done by various scientists to establish functions and anatomical structure of the stomach. 4. The bile acids are then reabsorbed in the small intestine and cycled into the liver to be used again. 5. The contraction of the muscle causes blood to be pumped. 6. To reach the lungs, air enters through the mouth and nose and then travels through the pharynx, larynx, and down trachea. 7. Unlike other organs and body parts that enable to move, breathe, eat, or sense the world around us, the endocrine system influences the body's processes. 8. The pancreas secretes the hormone insulin, which enables the body to regulate the amount of sugar in the bloodstream. 9. The hormones produced by the pancreas enable the body to break down the food you eat. 10. Muscle and fat cells are stimulated by insulin to absorb the glucose they need as fuel for their activities. 11. The anterior lobe produces six hormones, including prolactin to stimulate the production of breast milk and growth hormone to regulate the body's physical growth. 12. Antidiuretic hormone acts on the kidneys to control urine output.

 





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