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Ex. 16. Write out key words of the text “Diabetes Mellitus”.



Ex. 17. Compose detailed plan of the text “Diabetes Mellitus”.

Ex. 18. Speak on the diabetes mellitus. The following expressions may be helpful:

Diabetes mellitus is … .

Its causes are … .

There are some types of dibetes mellitus. They are .. .

The the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus are the following … .

Diabetes mellitus is treated by … .

 

Ex. 19. Make up a dialogue on the diabetes mellitus.

Ex. 20. Pronounce and memorize the words to the theme studied:

Needle голка; plunger ['plAnGq] поршень; rubber stopper гумова пробка; upright ['ApraIt] тут: вертикально, прямовисно; tip тонкий кінець, кінчик; syringe ['sIrInG] шприц; adjust [q'GAst] регулювати, вивіряти; swab тампон; utensil [ju'tensl] приладдя; pinch| стискувати|стискати|, затискати; rub| терти.

Ex. 21. Read the following text and give a summary of it:

INSULIN INJECTION

All insulin is administered by injection. When taken orally, the digestive system destroys hormone before the body can put it to use. It is important that this simple procedure be conducted properly:

1. Remove the protective covering from the needle.

2. Hold the bottle of insulin upright in one hand, and push the needle through the rubber stopper. Push the plunger down to empty the air from it.

3. Turn over the bottle and syringe together. Check that tip of the needle is covered by the solution, then slowly pull the plunger back, drawing in slightly more than your prescribed dose.

4. To remove any air bubbles, tap the syringe until the bubbles rise to the needle end, and then push the plunger until they return to the bottle. Adjust the solution in the syringe to your exact dose, and remove the needle from the bottle.

5. Using an alcohol swab or a cotton ball soaked with alcohol or soap and water; clean the area of the injection.

6. Hold the syringe as you would a writing utensil. With your other hand, pinch a 1- to 2-inch fold of skin.

7. Quickly insert the needle into the fold of the skin.

8. Release the pinched skin and inject the insulin by gently pushing the plunger all the way down at a steady, moderate rate.

9. After injecting the insulin, cover the area of the injection with an alcohol swab or a cotton ball dampened with alcohol. Apply pressure to the area for a few seconds, but do not rub it because rubbing could cause the insulin to be absorbed into the bloodstream too quickly.

 

Ex. 22. Find unknown words from the following text and memorize their meanings:

MEDICATION

Medications to treat diabetes include insulin and glucose-lowering pills called oral hypoglycemic drugs.

Persons with type I diabetes cannot make their own insulin, so daily insulin injections are needed. Insulin does not come in pill form. Injections that are generally needed one to four times per day. Some people use an insulin pump, which is worn at all times and delivers a steady flow of insulin throughout the day. Other people may use a new type of inhaled insulin. Insulin preparations differ in how quickly they start to work and how long they remain active. Sometimes different types of insulin are mixed together in a single injection. The types of insulin to use, the doses needed, and the number of daily injections are chosen by a health care professional trained to provide diabetes care.

People who need insulin are taught to give themselves injections by their health care providers or diabetes educators.

Unlike type I diabetes, type II diabetes may respond to treatment with exercise, diet, and medicines taken by mouth. There are several types of medicines used to lower blood glucose in type II diabetes. Most persons with type II diabetes will need more than one medication for good blood sugar control within 3 years of starting their first medication. Different groups of medications may be combined or used with insulin.

Some people with type II diabetes find they no longer need medication if they lose weight and increase activity, because when their ideal weight is reached, their own insulin and a careful diet can control their blood glucose levels.

Regular exercise is especially important for people with diabetes. It helps with blood sugar control, weight loss, and high blood pressure. People with diabetes who exercise are less likely to experience a heart attack or stroke than diabetics who do not exercise regularly. You should be evaluated by your physician before starting an exercise program.





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