Ex. 23. Say to what conclusion you have come after having read the text “Development During Preschool Years”.

Ex. 24. Give a summary of the following text in Ukrainian:


Growth and development are slow and steady in the early school-age years, in sharp contrast with the rapid changes that occurred during the preschool years and those to follow during adolescence. A school-age child will gain about 7 pounds a year, and his/her height will increase by approximately 2.5 inches a year. The growth of a child’s head also will slow down. This is a time when a child’s brain has almost reached its adult size.

A child’s motor skills also will be refined between the ages of 6 and 12. During this period, running, jumping, and throwing show steady improvement.

During the period of rapid growth toward the end of the school-age years, children suddenly grow at dramatically different rates. School-age girls and boys have distinctly different growth patterns. There is a period during the late school-age years when girls are taller and heavier than boys. By the age of 13.5 years, most boys have grown taller than girls. Girls tend to weight less than boys until almost age 9 and after age 14, but they are heavier than boys between those two ages. Early puberty generally begins at about age 10 in girls and age 12 in boys.

In teenagers the external changes are obvious: body growth taller and heavier, and its shape changes. The bones grow too, even facial bones change. Fat collects on the buttocks and around the abdomen in boys and girls. Boys accumulate mostly lean tissue (muscle and bone), and girls add more fat. The result is that fat makes up 25 percent of the total body weight in girls and between 15 and 20 percent in boys.



The stages of life are as following: the germinal period; the embryo; the fetus; neonate; infant; child; adolescent; and adult. A great number of changes occur in the life of the newborn until 1 year of age. The brain is still developing at this time. By 6 weeks the infant is usually able to hold up its head and begins to smile in response to people. At 3 months of age the infant’s limbs are exercised aimlessly. The infant can follow a moving person with eyes. At 4 months the infant begins to do push-ups. It can begin to grasp things placed in its hand, roll from its back to its side, hold its head erect, and play with its hands. At 5 months the infant can usually laugh out loud, reach for objects, turn its head to follow an object, lift its head and shoulders, sit with support, and roll over. At 8 months the infant can recognize familiar people, sit up without support, and reach for specific objects. At 12 months the infant may pull itself to a standing position and may be able to walk without support. The infant can understand much of what is said to it and may say several words of its own.





nutrition [nju'trIS(q)n] харчування, живлення; їжа feeding ['fI:dIN] харчування, годування enhance [In'ha:ns] посилювати, поліпшувати bottle-feeding ['bOtl"fI:dIN] штучне вигодовування formula ['fO:mjulq] молочна суміш offer ['Ofq] пропонувати nourishment ['nArISmqnt] годування, харчування; їжа carbohydrate ["ka:bqu'haIdreIt] карбогідрат, вуглевод diet ['daIqt] харчування, їжа, стіл; режим харчування gain [geIn] рост, збільшення insulation ["Insju'leiS(q)n] ізоляція vehicle ['vI:kl] зв’язуюча речовина, зв’язуючий матеріал intake['InteIk] поглинення, вбирання virtually ['vq:tjuqlI] фактично, практично, по суті advantage [qd'va:ntIG] перевага; користь benefit ['benIfIt] перевага; користь goal[gqul] завдання, ціль


Ex. 1. Translate the following words paying attention to the parts of speech:

Differ (v), difference (n), different (adj.); treat (v), treatment (n), treatable (adj.); complain (v), complaint (n); change (v), change (n), changeability (n), changeable (adj.).





Ex. 2. Familiarize yourself with the data of the following table:



to have + Participle II (V3)


Present Perfect Tense (Active Voice) have + V3 has You have written a book.   She has written a book.
Past Perfect Tense (Active Voice) had + V3 They had written a book.  
Future Perfect Tense (Active Voice) shall have + V3 will have I shall have written a book.   This doctor will have written a book.
Present Perfect Tense (Passive Voice) have been + V3 has been The books have been written.   The book has been written.
Past Perfect Tense (Passive Voice) had been + V3 The books had been written. The book had been written.
Future Perfect Tense (Passive Voice) shall have been + V3 will have been The book will have been written. The books will have been written.


Ex. 3. Read and translate the following sentences:

1. Ginseng root (корені женьшеню) has been used as an effective tonic for men and women since ancient times. 2. Research work of many scientists has helped to estimate that the rate of heart beat increases depending on the different emotions. 3. It has been estimated that during the past 30 years there has been as much progress in clinical medicine as in all the previous history of medicine combined. 4. Almost everyone has had an X-ray, either to visualize a broken bone or to check for a cavity in a tooth. 5. A few studies have suggested that drug is slightly more effective than other drugs in the treatment of kidney disorders. 6. The cardiac disorders have produced heart rate problems. 7. His nutrition has included breast milk and formula.


Ex. 4. Put the verbs into correct tense forms:

1. Anatomical imaging (to revolutionize) medical science. 2. Anatomical imaging (to make) a major contribution to that progress. 3. Once the computer (to analyze) the pattern of sounds waves, the information is transferred to a motion in which the result is visualized as an ultrasound image. 4. Excellent reviews on algorithms for the standard management of asthma and emergency management of asthma (publish). 5. Inhaled corticosteroids (to become) first-line therapy for the treatment of moderate to severe asthma.


Ex. 5. Translate the following sentences into English:

1. Вчені визначили, що загальна|спільна| маса крові, котра нагнітається серцем щодня, складає близько 10 тонн|тонна-сил|. 2. Наукове дослідження дало фізіологам можливість|спроможність| установити, що серцевий|сердечний| м'яз скорочується біля однієї третини життя людини. 3. Тиск|тиснення| у правому передсерді збільшився. 4. Він установив, що під час фізичних вправ потік крові (blood| flow|) по судинах|посудинах| сильно змінюється. 5. Останні дослідження продемонстрували, що ці препарати можуть скоротити кількість летальних результатів|виходів| (deaths|), що виникають унаслідок|внаслідок| захворювань коронарних судин|посудин|.


Ex. 6. Familiarize yourself with the data of the following table:




Tense (1) Questioning word (2) Auxiliary verb (3) Subject (4) Predicate Example
Present Perfect Tense, Active Voice What have has I, you, we they   he, she, it V3   What has he received this week?
Past Perfect Tense, Active Voice Why had I, he, she, it, you, we, they V3   How many articles had the student read by 5 o’clock?
Future Perfect Tense, Active Voice Where shall will I, we   he, she, it, you, they have + V3   What text will Helen have translated by 3 o’clock?
Present Perfect Tense, Passive Voice How many have has I, you, we they   he, she, it been + V3   Has the text been translated today?
Past Perfect Tense, Passive Voice How much had I, he, she, it, you, we, they been + V3   Where hadthe patient been examined?
Future Perfect Tense, Passive Voice   shall will I, we   he, she, it, you, they have + been + V3 When will the hospital have been modernized?


Ex. 7. Translate the following interrogative sentences into Ukrainian:

1. How has the amount of radiation used for routine X-ray examinations been reduced over year? 2. Why has the heart transplantation become a routine procedure in many medical centers? 3. What inventions in medicine has V.P. Filatov made? 4. What hospitals have the Romans established? 5. What countries has the child mortality declined during the last decade? 6. Why have these methods of treatment used?


Ex. 8. Make the following sentences interrogative:

1. Physiologists have determined that in the adult the heart makes from 60 to 72 beats per minute. 2. Physiologists have called the first phase of short contraction of both atria – the atrial systole. 3. The oxygenated blood has passed the four pulmonary veins. 4. Pharmacological treatment for nocturnal asthma has been directed at the underlying mechanisms for the disease. 5. The scientists have discussed the mechanisms and physiological changes occurring during laparoscopy. 6. The movement of skeletal muscles and contraction of veins have increased the venous return to the heart. 7. Bronchodilator drug has been administered to patient to open narrowed passages in the lungs. 8. By 2020, the number of people over 60 will have grown to one billion.


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