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Ex. 16. Translate the text “Endocrine System” into Ukrainian.



 

Ex. 17. Answer the following questions:

1. What does the endocrine system consist of? 2. What is the function of endocrine system? 3. What glands of external secretion do you know? 4. What glands are the glands of internal secretion? 5. What is a hormone? 6. Where do the hormones circulate?

 

Ex. 18. Read the following abstract and say what it deals with:

Pituitary gland is at the base of the brain. Thyroid gland is located on either side of the trachea below the thyroid cartilage. Parathyroid glands are located on the dorsal side of the thyroid gland. Pancreas is behind the stomach. The adrenal glands are situated one on top of each kidney.

 

Ex. 19. Choose the correct terms(parathyroid gland; thyroid gland; adrenal glands; endocrine gland; pancreas; exocrine gland; pituitary gland)for the following definitions:

1. Gland that releases its secretion internally into a body fluid. 2. A gland that releases its secretion to the outside through a duct. 3. A set of glands located near the surface of the thyroid gland. 4. This is a largest gland of the human body. 5. This gland is located in the neck and consists of two lobes. Its hormones are thyroxine and calcitonin. 6. These glands are located atop the kidneys. Each gland consists of a medulla and a cortex. 7. This gland is attached to the base of the brain, has an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe. Most its secretion are controlled by the hypothalamus. Its hormones are growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormones, and some others.

 

Ex. 20. Choose the correct answer:

A mother consulted the doctor about her son who had grown up in height about 18 cm during the summer. On examination: height – 190 cm, weight – 68 kg. What endocrine gland’s hypersecretion may cause this condition? (thyroid gland, epiphysis, adrenal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas)

Ex. 21. Write out key words of the text “Endocrine System”.

Ex. 22. Make up a plan of the text “Endocrine System”.

Ex. 23. Give a summary of the text “Endocrine System”.

Ex. 24. Pronounce and memorize the words to the theme studied:

Secretory [sI'krI:tqrI] activity секреторна діяльність; extension подовження; band смуга, зона; зв'язка; vascular судинний; triiodothyronine ["traIaI'OdqTaI'ronIn] трийодтиронін; tetraiodothyronine тетрайодтиронін; thyroxine [TaI'rOksIn] тироксин (гормон щитоподібної залози); parietal [pq'raIItl] парієтальний, пристінковий; peritoneum ["perItqu'nI:qm] очеревина; adrenal cortex ['kO:teks] кора надниркової залози; adrenal medulla [me'dAlq] мозкова речовина надниркової залози; pancreatic islet (Langerhans islet) ['la:Ngqha:ns 'aIlIt] острівець Лангерганса, панкреатичний острівець; norepinephrine ['nourepI'nefrIn] норепінефрин, норадреналін; circulatory system система кровообігу, кровотворна система; glucagon ['glu:kqgOn] гіперглікемічний гормон підшлункової залози, глюкагон; immature ["Imq'tjuq] cell незріла клітина.

 

Ex. 25. Read the following words and word-combinations:

Hypophysis; antidiuretic; hypothalamus; molecule; initiate protein synthesis; embryonic; capsule; mesoderm; elongate; enzyme.

 

Ex. 26. Read the following text:

ENDOCRINE GLANDS

The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is known to secrete some major hormones (e. g. antidiuretic hormone, growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, lipotropins, prolactin) that directly regulate numerous body functions and the secretory activity of several other endocrine glands. The hypothalamus of the brain regulates the secretory activity of the pituitary gland, and, in turn, the activity of the hypothalamus is influenced by the central nervous system, and by the emotional state of the individual. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are the major sites in which the two regulatory systems of the body (the nervous and endocrine systems) interact. Indeed, a major portion of the pituitary gland (the posterior pituitary) is an extension of the hypothalamus. As for pituitary gland, it is roughly 1 cm in diameter and weighs 0.5 to 1 g. The pituitary gland is located inferior to the hypothalamus. It is divided functionally into two parts (posterior pituitary gland and anterior pituitary gland).

The thyroid gland is composed of two lobes connected by a narrow band of thyroid tissue. The lobes are lateral to the upper portion of the trachea just inferior to the larynx. The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands with a weight of approximately 20 g. It is highly vascular and appears redder than its surrounding tissues. The thyroid hormones include both triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4); T4 is also called thyroxine. These substances constitute the major secretory products of the thyroid gland, with 10% T3 and 90% T4. Thyroid hormones bind with intracellular receptor molecules and initiate new protein synthesis.

The adrenal glands are near the top of each kidney. Like kidneys, they lie posterior to the parietal peritoneum and are surrounded by adipose tissue. They are enclosed by a connective tissue capsule and receive a well-developed blood supply. The adrenal glands are composed of an inner medulla and an outer cortex, which are derived from two separate embryonic tissues. Unlike most glands of the body, which develop from epithelial tissue, the adrenal cortex is derived from mesoderm. The adrenal medulla is a component of the autonomic nervous system and secretes two types of hormones: epinephrine (adrenaline), 80%, and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), 20%. The adrenal cortex secretes three hormone types: mineralocorticosteroids, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones. All are similar in structure in that they are steroids, highly specialized lipids that are derived from cholesterol.

The pancreas lies behind the peritoneum between stomach and the duodenum. It is elongated structure approximately 15 cm long. It weighs 85 to 100 g. The head of the pancreas lies near the duodenum, and its body and tail extend toward the spleen. The pancreas plays a key part in the digestive process, producing enzymes essential to the digestion of food. The pancreas is both an exocrine gland and endocrine gland. The endocrine portion, consisting of pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans), produces hormones that enter the circulatory system. Each islet is composed of alpha cells (20%), which secrete glucagons, beta cells (75%), which secrete insulin, and other cell types (5%). The remaining cells are either immature cells of questionable function or delta cells, which secrete somatostatin.

 

Ex. 27. Insert the missing words from the box:

1. The _ secretes at least nine hormones that regulate numerous body functions and other endocrine glands. 2. The hypothalamus _ pituitary gland activity through neurohormones. 3. The _ is just inferior to the larynx. 4. Thyroid hormones increase the rate of glucose, fat, and protein metabolism in many tissues, thus increasing body _. 5. Normal growth of many tissues is dependent on _ hormones. 6. The adrenal glands are near the superior pole of each_. 7. The adrenal cortex is derived from _. 8. Norepinephrine stimulates cardiac muscle and causes constriction of most peripheral _ vessels. 9. The adrenal _ hormones prepare the body for physical activity. 10. The pancreas is located along the small _ and the stomach. 11. It is both an _ and endocrine gland. 12. The endocrine portion of pancreas _ the pancreatic islets.

 

thyroid gland; exocrine; regulates; consists of; thyroid; mesoderm; blood; medulla; temperature; pituitary gland; kidney; intestine.

 

Ex. 28. Answer the following questions:

1. What hormones of the pituitary gland do you know? 2. What is the major function of the pituitary gland? 3. Where is the pituitary gland located? 4. What is the thyroid gland composed of? 5. What thyroid hormones do you know? 6. What do thyroid hormones initiate? 7. Where are the adrenal glands located? 8. What are the adrenal glands composed of? 9. What hormones does the adrenal cortex secrete? 10. What does the pancreas consist of? 11. What is the major function of the pancreas?

 

Ex. 29. Pick up correct statements (true or false choice):

1. As a group, endocrine glands are concerned with the regulation of metabolic processes. 2. Exocrine glands secrete hormones. 3. Hormone is carried to its target cells by body fluid. 4. Endocrine glands do not secrete hormones that affect target cells possessing specific receptors.

 

Ex. 30. Retell the text “Endocrine Glands”.

 

Ex. 31. Pronounce and translate the following terms to the theme studied:

Minute [maI'nju:t] amount; interstitial ["Intq:'stISql] space; fuel [fjuql]; starchy ['sta:CI] food; potassium [pq'txsIqm]; sodium ['squdjqm]; the rate of chemical activity; distinct [dIs'tINkt] hormones; prompt [prOmpt]; urine output ['autput].

 

Ex. 32. Read the following text, make up a plan, and speak on the functions of hormones:

FUNCTIONS OF HORMONES

The secretory products of endocrine glands are hormones. Traditionally a hormone is defined as a substance that is produced in minute amounts by a collection of cells, is secreted into the interstitial spaces, enters the circulatory system on which it is transported some distance, and acts on specific tissues called target tissues at another site in the body to influence the tissues' activity.

The hormones produced by the pancreas enable the body to break down (metabolize) the food you eat. They regulate the body's use of glucose, a simple form of sugar that is an energy source for much of the daily activities of all human cells. Three hormones are produced by the pancreas. The first is insulin, which is produced when the concentration of glucose in the blood increases. This normally occurs shortly after a person eats a meal. Muscle and fat cells are stimulated by insulin to absorb the glucose they need as fuel for their activities. The second pancreatic hormone is glucagon. When needed, it breaks down the glycogen stored as fuel into the bloodstream. In effect, this raises the concentration of sugar in the blood. The third hormone produced by the pancreas, somatostatin, is a factor in regulating the production and release of both insulin and glucagon.

When secreted into the bloodstream adrenal medulla hormones increase cardiac output, blood flow to skeletal muscles and heart, and release of glucose and fatty acids into blood. The cortex produces a group of hormones called corticosteroids, of which there are three kinds. One kind is the sex hormones. They affect sexual development and reproduction. Another kind includes glucocorticoids. They influence the conversion of starchy foods into glycogen in the liver. The third kind is the mineralocorticosteroids. They control the body's use of minerals, sodium and potassium. The hormones of the adrenal gland affect virtually every system in the human body to some degree.

The thyroid gland helps set the rate at which the body functions. It responds to instructions from the pituitary gland to secreting the hormone thyroxine, whose actions control the rate of chemical activity in the body. Such activities vary directly with the quantity of thyroxine present: the more hormones circulating in the bloodstream, the greater the speed at which chemical reactions occur.

As you know the pituitary gland (hypophysis) consists of two parts, the front (anterior) lobe and the posterior lobe. The anterior lobe produces six distinct hormones, including prolactin to stimulate the production of breast milk and growth hormone to regulate the body's physical growth. The other four hormones influence other parts of the endocrine system, stimulating activities in the thyroid gland, ovaries, testicles, and adrenal glands. The posterior lobe produces two hormones: oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone. Oxytocin prompts contractions during childbirth and stimulates the breast to release milk during breastfeeding. Antidiuretic hormone acts on the kidneys to control urine output.

 

Ex. 33. Try to organize obtained information in the form of the following table:

Gland Location Hormones produced by gland Function of the gland or hormone
       

 

Ex. 34. Speak on the some endocrine glands using obtained data. You may use the following expressions:

The endocrine system consists of _. The _ gland is one of the endocrine glands. It is located _. The _ glands secrete the following hormones _. These hormones play a key part in _.

 

Ex. 35. Read and translate the following text:

THYROID GLAND

Thyroid Gland The thyroid gland is one of the endocrine glands, which make hormones to regulate physiological functions in the human body. The thyroid gland manufactures thyroid hormone, which regulates the rate at which the body carries on its necessary functions. The thyroid gland is located in the middle of the lower neck, below the larynx (voice box) and just above your clavicles (collarbones). It is shaped like a "bow tie," having two halves (lobes): a right lobe and a left lobe joined by an "isthmus".  

The thyroid gland contains numerous follicles, which are small spheres with their walls composed of a single layer of cuboidal epithelial cells. The center, or lumen, of each thyroid follicle is filled with a protein called thyroglobulin to which thyroid hormones are bound. The thyroglobulin stores large amounts of thyroid hormone.

Between the follicles a delicate network of loose connective tissue contains numerous capillaries. Scattered parafollicular cells are found between the follicles and among the cells that comprise the wall of the follicle. Calcitonin is secreted from the parafollicular cells and plays a role in reducing the concentration of calcium in the body fluids when calcium levels become elevated.

Diseases of the thyroid gland are very common. The most common diseases are caused by an over- or under-active glands. These conditions are called hyperthyroidism (e.g., Grave's disease) and hypothyroidism. Sometimes the thyroid gland can become enlarged from over-activity (as in Grave's disease) or from under-activity (as in hypothyroidism). An enlarged thyroid gland is often called a "goiter."

Patients may develop "lumps" or "masses" in their thyroid gland. They may appear gradually or very rapidly. Patients who had radiation therapy to the head or neck are more prone to develop thyroid malignancy.





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