ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

OBJECTIVE PARTICIPLE CONSTRUCTION



Цей дієприкметниковий комплекс|дієприкметниковий||зворот,оберт| вживається після|потім| групи “підмет-присудок”, де присудок виражений|виказувати,висловлювати| дієсловом, що означає сприймання за допомогою органів чуттів: to feel – відчувати; to hear – слухати; to see – бачити; to watch – спостерігати, бачити; to want – хотіти:

NOUN (Common Case) or PRONOUN (Objective Case)   PARTICIPLE
Doctor(s)   me   Participle I (Active):
  Student(s)   him her it us you them   Ving (working, writing)   Participle I (Passive): being + V3 (being worked, being written)   Participle II (Passive): V3 (worked, written)

The Objective Participle Construction перекладається підрядним реченням зі сполучником “як”: I saw them walking along the street. Я бачив, як вони йшли по вулиці.

 

Ex. 3. Read and translate the following sentences into Ukrainian:

1. He saw the patient going up the stairs. 2. We saw the patient being carried to the operating theatre. 3. He feels the operation being successful. 3. They watched him approaching the hospital. 4. The students watched the patients being examined. 5. He heard the air passing the trachea.

 

READING AND DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS

Ex. 4. Read VOCABULARY and memorize new words.

Ex. 5. Compose 2-3- sentences using the words of VOCABULARY.

Ex. 6. Insert the missing letters:

Urin_tion; ex_retion; ur_ter; urethr_; blad_er; caly_; r_nal; me_ulla; fas_ia.

 

Ex. 7. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Narrow; fat pad; urethra; bladder; cortex; carry; hilum; capsule; fist; medulla; ureter.

 

Ex. 8. Read the following words and word-combinations:

Kidney; urine; excess; pressure; either; slightly; renal fascia; relatively; nerves; exit; hilum; sinus; channel; minor; muscular.

 

Ex. 9. Read the following text:

URINARY SYSTEM

 

The urinary system consists of two kidneys, urinary bladder, two ureters, which carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder, and urethra, which carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. The primary function of the urinary system is to remove the excess fluid and waste material from the blood. In addition, the kidneys function as glands producing hormones that are important in the production of red blood cells, in the regulation of blood pressure, and in the formation of bone.

The kidneys are the most important organs for fluid excretion. The kidneys, a pair of bean-shaped organs, are located against the back of the abdominal wall on either side of the spine at the level of the lowest ribs. Each kidney is generally about the size of the person's fist. The right kidney is slightly lower than the left. The kidney is surrounded by a renal capsule and a renal fat pad and is held in place by the renal fascia. The two layers of the kidney are the cortex and the medulla.

On the medial side of each kidney there is a relatively small area called the hilum where the renal artery and the nerves enter and the renal vein and ureter exit.

The hilum opens into a cavity called the renal sinus, which is filled with fat and connective tissue. In the center of the renal sinus the urinary channel is enlarged to form the renal pelvis.

Urinary System (models) Several large urinary tubes (called calyces) extend to the renal pelvis from the kidney tissue. The calyces that open directly into the renal pelvis are called major calyces, and the smaller calyces that open into major calyces are called minor calyces. There are 8 to 20 minor calyces and 2 or 3 major calyces per kidney. At the hilum the renal pelvis narrows to form the ureter. Ureters are muscular tubes, one from each kidney, that propel the urine to the bladder. The bladder is a muscular bag that stores the urine. The urethra is the narrow tube through which the urine leaves the bladder during urination.

 

Ex. 10. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:

Ниркова чашка; переносити, нести; капсула, оболонка; медула|; фасція; виділення; уретра, сечовивідний канал; ворота; сечовий міхур|пузир,пухир|; звужуватися; сечовипускання; сечовід; нирковий.

 

Ex. 11. Translate the text “Urinary System” into Ukrainian.

Ex. 12. Insert the missing words:

1. The main function of the _ system is removal of excess fluid and waste material from the blood. 2. The urinary system consists of two _, urinary bladder, ureters, and _. 3. The kidneys are _ against the back of the abdominal wall. 4. Each kidney is generally about the size of the person's _. 5. Kidneys are the most important organs for fluid _. 6. Ureters are _ tubes. 7. They propel the urine to the _. 8. The bladder is a muscular bag that stores the _. 9. The _ is the narrow tube through which the urine leaves the bladder during urination.

Ex. 13. Answer the following questions:

1. What does the urinary system consist of? 2. What is the major function of the urinary system? 3. What are the layers of kidneys? 4. What is hilum? 5. What are ureters? 6. What are their functions? 7. What is the function of the urethra?

Ex. 14. Match the following words with their definitions:

1. Kidney   A. Tube conducting urine from the kidney to the urinary bladder.
2. Urethra B. One of the two organs that excrete urine. They are bean-shaped organs approximately 11 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 3 cm thick.  
3. Ureter C. Urogenital canal; canal leading from the bladder, discharging the urine externally.

Ex. 15. Insert the prepositions:

1. The urinary system regulates the volume and composition _ the intestinal fluid. 2. The urinary system consists _ the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. 3. The key elements _ the urinary system are the kidneys, a pair of purplish-brown organs located below the ribs toward the middle of the back. 4. The kidneys remove excess liquid and wastes _ the blood in the form of urine, keep a stable balance of salts and other substances in the blood, and produce a hormone that aids the formation _ red blood cells. 5. Narrow tubes called ureters carry urine _ the kidneys to the bladder, a sack-like organ in the lower abdomen. 6. Urine is stored _ the bladder and emptied through the urethra.





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