NOUN or (Common Case) PRONOUN (Objective Case) INFINITIVE
Doctor(s)     Student(s) me (тут: я) him (тут: он) her (тут: она) it (тут: он, она, оно) us (тут: мы) you (тут: ты, вы) them (тут: они) Indefinite (Active) V (to write)
Indefinite (Passive) to be + V3 (to be written)
Continuous (Active) to be + Ving (to be writing)
Perfect (Active) to have + V3 (to have written)
Perfect (Passive) to have + been + V3 (to have been written)


На українську мову об'єктний інфінітивний комплекс перекладається здебільшого підрядним додатковим реченням. Перша частина комплексу відповідає підмету підрядного речення, а друга частина – присудку.

Об'єктний інфінітивний комплекс вживається після певних груп дієслів:


1. Що виражають бажання, намір, почуття: to want – хотіти; to wish – бажати; to desire – бажати; should/would like – хотів/ла би; to hate – ненавидіти; to intend – мати намір та ін.   He wanted us to go to the clinic. Він хотів, щоб ми пійшли до кліники.
2. Що виражають думку (погляд), припущення, сподівання: to expect – сподіватися; to think – думати; to believe – вважати; to suppose – припускати; to consider – вважати; to find – знаходити; to know – знати та ін.   We think her to have worked at this hospital. Ми думаємо, що вона працювала в цій лікарні. She considers him to be the best surgeon. Вона вважає його кращим хірургом.
3. Що виражають наказ, прохання, дозвіл, пораду, примус: to ask – просити; to order – наказувати; to allow – дозволяти; to request – просити; to permit – дозволяти; to advice – радити, рекомендувати; to recommend – рекомендувати; to cause – примушувати; to force – примушувати; to make – примушувати; to let – дозволяти. (Після|потім| дієслів to| make| і і to| let| інфінітив вживається без частки|частки,часточки| to|).     The teacher allowed us to use dictionaries. Вчитель дозволив нам користуватися словниками. The doctor made the patient lie down. Лікар примусив хворого лягти.    
4. Що виражають|виказують,висловлюють| сприймання за допомогою органів чуттів: (після цих дієслів інфінітив вживається без частки|частки,часточки| to|): to| see| – бачити; to| hear| – чути; to| feel| – відчувати|почувати|; to| watch| – спостерігати; to| observe| – спостерігати; to| notice| – відзначати.       I felt the pain become less. Я відчула, що біль зменшився. I heard her call my name. Я почув, що вона покликала мене.


Ex. 4. Read and translate the following sentences:

1. I want my sister to follow a bed regimen. 2. The nurse saw the surgeon enter the operating room. 3. The patient felt the pain decrease. 4. The students watched the doctor examine the patient. 5. The professor expects (розраховувати) the assistant to finish his scientific work ahead of time. 6. We know him to be skilled surgeon. 7. I want you to rewrite the case history. 8. The doctor recommended the room of the patient to be aired every two hours. 9. The nurse heard the patient talk at night. 10. Physicians consider the diabetes mellitus to occur mainly as a result of inadequate secretion of insulin.



Ex. 5. Read VOCABULARY and memorize the following words.

Ex. 6. Compose 2-3 sentences using the words of VOCABULARY.

Ex. 7. Insert the missing letters:

Adip_se; juven_le; respo_d; diabet_s mellitus; pan_reatic; d_minish; ta_get tissue.

Ex. 8. Translate the following words and word-combinations into Ukrainian:

Langerhans islet; heredity; respond; occur; confusion; adipose; insulin-dependent diabetes; extract; thirst; diminish; readily; consequence.

Ex. 9. Read the following words and word-combinations:

Diabetes mellitus; inadequate; glucose ['glu:kqus]; pancreatic islets; juvenile; viral; intestine; synthesize; secrete; source; neuron ['njuqrOn]; convulsion; injection; currently; associate; fatigue [fe'tI:g]; since [sIns].

Ex. 10. Read the following text:


Scientists consider the diabetes mellitus to occur as a result of inadequate secretion of insulin or the inability of tissues to respond to insulin. Thus, when body's cells are unable to use the glucose in the bloodstream because of a lack of insulin activity, diabetes mellitus occurs. Insulin hyposecretion is usually caused by degeneration of the beta cells in the pancreatic islets. There are two types of diabetes mellitus: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is also known as type I, juvenile or juvenile-onset diabetes. Terms used for NIDDM include adult-onset, stable, and type II diabetes. Juvenile-onset diabetes usually develops in young people. It is caused by diminished insulin secretion. It is not clear if heredity plays a major role in its onset, but viral infection of the pancreatic islets may be involved. NIDDM develops in older people and often does not result from a lack of insulin but from the inability of the tissues to respond insulin.

The symptoms associated with diabetes mellitus are increased thirst, increased urination, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, skin infections, and bladder infections. These symptoms are the consequence of the abnormal metabolism of nutrients, which is caused by diminished insulin secretion or a decreased number of insulin receptors. In patients with diabetes mellitus nutrients are absorbed from the intestine after a meal, but without insulin skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, the liver and other target tissues do not readily take glucose into their cells. Consequently, blood level of glucose increases dramatically.

Diabetes mellitus often is treated by administration of insulin by injection. Insulin is extracted from sheep or pork pancreatic tissue. Genetic engineering currently is used to synthesize human insulin. In some cases diabetes mellitus can be treated by administering drugs that stimulate beta cells to secrete more insulin. This treatment is effective only if an adequate number of functional beta cells is present in the islets of Langerhans.

Too much insulin or too little food intake after an injection of insulin by a diabetic patient causes insulin shock. The high level of insulin causes target tissues to take up glucose at a very high rate. As a result, blood glucose levels rapidly fall to a low level. Since the nervous system depends on glucose as its major source of energy, neurons malfunction because of a lack of metabolic energy. As the blood glucose level decreases, the concentration of fatty acids increases in the blood, resulting in a decrease in the blood pH, which also causes nerve cells to malfunction. The result is a series of nervous system malfunctions that include disorientation, confusion, and convulsions.


Ex. 11. Translate the following words and word-combinations into English:

Діабет дорослих; ювенільний діабет; цукровий діабет; інсулін(о)залежний діабет; зменшуватися, знижуватися; адипозний, жировий; спадковість; виникати; реагувати; панкреатичний|панкреатит| острівець, острівець Лангерганса; спричинятися чимось; слабкість, тканина.


Ex. 12. Translate the text “Diabetes Mellitus” into Ukrainian:

Ex. 13. Insert the missing words:

1. Diabetes mellitus occurs as a result of inadequate secretion of _. 2. There are two types of diabetes mellitus: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and _ diabetes mellitus. 3. Insulin-dependent _ is also known as type I; and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is known as type II. 4. Viral infection and _ play definite role in diabetes onset. 5. The symptoms of diabetes mellitus are increased _, increased urination, weight loss, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, skin infections, and bladder infections. 6. Diabetes mellitus often is _ by administration of insulin by injection.

Ex. 14. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the causes of diabetes mellitus? 2. What types of diabetes mellitus do you know? 3. What are the symptoms of diabetes mellitus? 4. How is diabetes mellitus treated?


Ex. 15. Insert the prepositions:

1. Most persons _ NIDDM are overweight or obese [qu'bI:s]. 2. Excess weight worsens the state _ the diabetes, and weight reduction has a favorable effect. 3. In some cases, insulin injections will be required to keep blood glucose concentrations _ satisfactory limits. 4. Medicines taken _ mouth, called oral hypoglycemic agents, often are helpful in NIDDM. 5. A weight-loss program often decreases the need _ insulin or an oral hypoglycemic medication. 6. Diabetes mellitus often is treated _ administration of insulin by injection. 7. Insulin is a drug used _ IDDM. 8. Many people _ IDDM can undertake a regimen called intensive insulin therapy. 9. People _ diabetes must carefully regulate their consumption of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

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