Соотнесите английские словосочетания из текста с их русскими эквивалентами. 





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Соотнесите английские словосочетания из текста с их русскими эквивалентами.



 

1. handwriting identi­fication a. подделывать ч-л почерк
2. handwriting sample b. высоковыработанный почерк
3. document examiners c. исключать все признаки
4. to differentiate genuine and non- genuine writing d. образец почерка
5. to identify the author e. люди с маловыработанным почерком
6. to con­tain natural variation f. установление исполнителя (рукописи)
7. slight deviations g. эксперт судебного почерковедения
8. person's writing ability h. отличать подлинные и неподлинные рукописи
9. flexibility of wrist movement i. достичь уровня сформированности (выработанности) почерка
10. grip of the writing instrument j. содержать естественное видоизменение
11.to reach a level of skill k. выработанность почерка человека
12. skilled writing l. мельчайшие отклонения
13. poor writers m. свобода движений в области запястья
14. to disguise sb’s handwriting n. захват пишущего предмета (постановка руки при написании)
15. to eliminate all the characteristics o. установить исполнителя, автора

3. Работа в парах. Задайте друг другу вопросы по тексту, переделав их из косвенных в прямые, и ответьте на них.

1. I wonder if two people can write exactly alike.

2. I wonder who can differentiate genuine and non-genuine writing.

3. I wonder if writing is a complex act and a highly developed skill.

4. I wonder what results in the unique style of each individual writer.

5. I wonder what skilled writing uses.

6. I wonder if poor writers use only their fingers.

7. I wonder when writing becomes automatic.

Замените русские слова и словосочетания, стоящие в скобках, на их английские эквиваленты из рамки.

 
 
1. index finger, 2. to extend the writing line, 3. writing instrument, 4. offers resistance, 5. in a rightward and upward direction, 6. writing area, 7. the left margin, 8. right-handed writers, 9. is covering the line of writing, 10. contraction and release, 11. strokes

 


The wrist is flexed to assist in the movement of the (пишущий предмет). The wrist will bend to assist the writer in reaching the (зона письма). When the wrist can no longer reach, the arm slides forward toward the right margin (продолжить строку). The arm is pulled back to (левому полю) to start the next line of writing. The paper may be adjusted as well to assist the writer in reaching the available writing surface. The fingers work together to produce the forms of writing. When one finger pushes the writing instrument another (оказывает сопротивление), which controls the motion. The (напряжение и расслабление) flow together to push the pen away and pull it back again. The (штрихи) turning leftward and downward require contraction of the muscles, and the upward and rightward strokes involve the release of the muscles. Thus, downward writing is better controlled.

(Праворукие) use their thumb to exert pressure on the writing instrument to push it horizontally (вправо и вверх). The middle finger pushes the writing instrument leftward both diagonally and horizontally while the thumb and (указательный палец) pull the instrument down toward the baseline, which is the imaginary line to which the writing returns.

Because writer movement is from left to right, the right-handed writer has the advantage of being able to see the writing as it is being executed. The left-handed writer must adjust his or her hand to compensate for the fact that the hand (закрывает строчку) as it is being executed. Many left- handed writers hook their hand over the writing so they can see what they are writing.

Работа в парах. Расскажите своему коллеге, что Вы прочитали в документе, написанном ниже, о принципах, которые помогают эксперту определить исполнителя текста при проведении почерковедческой экспертизы. Пользуйтесь моделями 1 и 2.

Model 1.

The document says that no two people write exactly alike.

Model 2.

The document said that no two people wrote exactly alike.

 

 

Прочитайте и переведите текст.

TEXT

HANDWRITING IN FORENSICS

 

A person's handwriting has long been recognized as a form of human identification. Handwriting, like fingerprints, contains a combination of characteristics. One of the first things the forensic scientist looks for is the way the lines form the letters. He looks at strokes, pressure, slants, heights, loops, letter spacing, proportions, dotted "i's" and crossed "t's" etc. The writing strokes consist of lines and curves in various directions, forming individual letter shapes. Lines can be vertical, horizontal, or diagonal. Curves are loops, circles, or parts of circles. Letter designs are the most easily identifiable feature of handwriting. Forgers copy letter designs while disregarding other characteristics of the writing. Each letter has a distinguishing element that makes it unique. For example, the t has crossbar, the i and j have a dot, and the f is the only lower case cursive letter that spans all three zones of writing because it has both upper loop and a lower loop. The letter p can occupy both zones if the upstroke is added. Connecting strokes joint the letters in words. They are also called ligatures. Letters in a word may be connected or disconnected. Connectors can consist of arches, angles, or thread connections.

When analyzing writing style, the forensic scientist looks at the handwriting in general, much like you would look at a painting. Make mental notes of the most outstanding traits and try to get a general feeling of the writer. Then, determine the emotional energy of the writer. This is the most important factor of the personality of the writer. A forensic scientist also looks to see if people make ornaments such as circles, etc. The scientist also looks at spelling, punctuation, and grammar. Spelling and punctuation cannot be used exclusively to identify handwriting, but they can aid in identification. All of these characteristics are useful in identifying the writing of a letter or a document. The examiner must be cognizant of the differences between "class characteristics" and "individual characteristics". Class characteristics are those which are common to a group such as a particular writing system, family grouping, foreign language system, or professional group. Individual characteristics are those which are personal or peculiar letters or letter combinations, which, taken together, would not occur in the writing of another person. For example, pen scope is the distance the pen covers before the writer moves his or her hand to continue the writing act. It is possible to identify the pen scope by the breaks between letters, syllables, or words. This is one of the factors that can assist in the identification of a particular writer because pen scope is an individual characteristic.

When a forensic scientist suspects a person in a forgery case, one of the first things he does is to get a handwriting sample from that suspect - an exemplar. Usually, the scientist tries to get the suspect to write the same text as the suspected forged document with the same type of writing instrument as the forgery (pencil, ballpoint pen, fountain pen, marker, etc.). If the forensic scientist has enough handwriting samples from the suspect, he can usually determine whether or not the suspect has written certain documents.

 

 

7. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты русским словам и словосочетаниям.

 

Почерк; образец почерка; написание черты, перечеркивающей буквы t, f ; общие характеристики; индивидуальные особенности; расстояние между буквами; постановка точки над буквой i; подделка; опознавание человека; определить эмоциональное состояние, должен знать разницу; степень связанности.





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