Выразите согласие/несогласие со следующими утверждениями, используя ту или иную речевую модели.

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Выразите согласие/несогласие со следующими утверждениями, используя ту или иную речевую модели.

Models: a) I fully agree with the statement.

b) I am afraid, I can’t agree with it.

  1. Not everything we do is governed by some set of rules.
  2. We need rules that everyone must obey.
  3. Laws against criminal conduct don’t help to safeguard our personal property and our lives.
  4. In well-ordered society conflicts never arise.
  5. It is impossible to resolve disputes peacefully.
  6. If individual’s rights are respected it means that we live in a safe and peaceful society.
  7. Totalitarian governments have cruel and arbitrary laws.
  8. Strong-arm tactics may provide a great deal of order ensuring the society operates in an orderly manner.
  9. Laws should be applied to every person in the society.
  10. The only goal of the law is fairness.



11. Замените русские слова в скобках английскими эквивалентами. Подчеркните сказуемое.


The aim of (права) is to regulate the conduct of human beings in society. The aim of (правовой) theory is (рассмотреть) the nature, origin and classification of law. The theory of natural law is based on the belief that there is a set of perfect (юридических норм) for human conduct and (законы) devised by men must be induced by these rules. (Закон) is a term which is used in many different senses. To (юриста) law has far narrower meaning – the principle recognized and applied by the state in (суде). The English (правовая система) has still been copied by many nations. (Судебный процесс) becomes the center of a contest between both parties in which one emerges the winner. By the time of (судебного разбирательства) each (сторона дела) should gain as much information as possible.



12. Прочитайте текст, подчеркните модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты и переведите текст на русский язык.


Some singular laws were introduced in eighteenth-century England. How strange it might seem now, people had to pay “window tax” for each window in their house. Later, this law was changed because many poor people chose to live in houses without windows just so that they didn’t have to pay. Another law was no less funny. If you traveled in any motor vehicle in nineteenth-century Britain, the law said that someone had to walk in front of you waving a red flag, or at night time a red lamp. This meant, in practice, that you couldn’t travel at more than about 8 kilometers per hour! Some other British laws concerning social behaviour were very strict. For example, until recently pubs in Britain weren’t allowed to stay open all day. They opened at eleven in the morning and had to shut again at three in the afternoon. In the evening they closed at half past ten. On Sundays the laws were stricter.

The USA is also famous for their quite odd laws. For example, in Illinois animals could go to jail, in Florida you had to wear clothes in the bath, in Kansas you were not permitted eat snakes in public, in North Carolina you could not drink milk on train, in Idaho you could not buy a chicken at night without the sheriff’s permission.



13. Замените русские слова в скобках английскими эквивалентами из рамки. Сделайте письменный перевод текста на русский язык.


Governments have many ways of making sure that citizens (подчиняются закону). They make the public aware of what the law is and try to encourage social support for (правопорядку). They use police forces (расследовать преступления) and catch criminals. They authorize courts to complete the investigation of criminal and (гражданских правонарушений) and to pass sentences to (наказать виновного) and deter others. And they make efforts to re-educate and reform people who have broken the law.

The laws of all countries are to be found in written records – (правовые кодексы) of countries with continental systems, the statutes and case-judgments of common law countries, warning on official forms, and notice in public buildings. Many people do not know where to find these records and do not find it easy to read them. But (незнание законов не освобождает от ответственности). Governments usually expect citizens to be aware of the laws which affect their lives. Sometimes this seems very harsh, for example, when the law is very technical. Shopkeepers in England (преследовались по закону в уголовном порядке) for selling books on Sunday, although they were allowed to sell magazines. However, there are many laws, such as those prohibiting theft, assault and dangerous driving which simply reflect social and moral attitudes to everyday behaviour. In such cases a person knows he (нарушает закон), even if he doesn’t know exactly which law it is.



14. Посоветуйте: a) Билли и Бетти, что им не надо делать, даже если они и прогуляли уроки; б) как следует поступать родителям, чтобы их дети не совершали неблаговидные поступки; в) что должны делать учителя, чтобы ученики не прогуливали уроки. Давая советы, используйте модальные глаголы.

Should выражает наставление, увещевание, рекомендацию, совет (на русский язык переводится - должен, должен бы, следует, следует бы).

Ought to обозначает моральный долг, обязанность говорящего.

Must в утвердительных и вопросительных предложениях выражает необходимость, долженствование, обязанность, а также совет, приказ. Отрицательная форма mustn't (must not) обычно выражает запрет (нельзя), т.е. является противоположной по значению глаголу may. Отсутствие необходимости (не нужно, не надо) выражается глаголом needn't (need not).

One day Billy (who is 13 years old) and Betty (who is 15) decide to play truant from school. Betty has a hidden store of cider, and they each drink a bottle of cider in the shed in Betty’s back garden.

By this time, they are feeling unsteady and extremely hungry. They go down to the local supermarket and take a bun and an apple each, without paying for them. Betty and Billy then run back to the shed in Betty’s garden, and eat the food. Billy makes a pile of sticks on the floor of the shed and sets light to them. As the fire catches, they realize the danger, and rush out of the shed, leaving it to burn down.



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