Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу глаголами из упражнения 5.

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Заполните пропуски подходящими по смыслу глаголами из упражнения 5.

  1. The State Duma of the Russian Federation ___________ laws.
  2. The government ___________ laws and _____________ them if they are bad.
  3. The police ____________ laws.
  4. Courts and judges ___________ laws.
  5. Law-abiding people _____________ laws.
  6. Criminals ______________ laws.
  7. The students of universities ___________ law.


7. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выделенные слова, которые выступают в разных функциях в предложении. (state - государство, состояние (сущ) и заявлять, излагать(гл) , judge – судья (сущ) и судить(гл) , claim – требование, судебный иск (сущ) и претендовать, заявлять(гл) , force– сила (сущ)и заставлять(гл) ,rule – правило, норма (сущ) и управлять, постановлять(гл), right– право (сущ) и правый (прил) ).


1. A judge is a court officer authorized to decide legal cases. But who are they tojudgeus? The judgemay also rule on motions made before or during a trial. Don't judgea book by its cover.


2. In this office, hard work is the rule, not the exception. When a court rules, the decision is called a ruling. The high destiny of the individual is to serve rather than to rule.

3. The stateis distinguished from other institutions by its purpose (establishment of order and security), methods (its laws and their enforcement), territory (its area of jurisdiction), and sovereignty. Another standard question is “What's the state of the world?” meaning “What's new?” or “What's going on?”. The Bill of Rights is stated in 463 words.

4. What we now call gravity was not identified as a universal forceuntil the work of Isaac Newton. Nobody can force me to do it.


5. After the storm, the Johnsons filed a claim against their home insurance in order to repair damage to the roof. He claimed he won the race, though the video showed otherwise.

6. In folk beliefs, good luck is regularly associated with the right side: it is lucky to see the new moon to one's right, to put the right stocking or shoe on first, while in each case the left is unlucky. Each legal right that an individual possesses relates to a corresponding legal duty imposed on another.




Прочитайте только те словосочетания, которые могут выступать в качестве сказуемого в предложении.


will have finished, alter, in favor of, unlike rules, should not do, to pay, may be forced, would not be necessary, did not live, so special, to drive on, help to safeguard, claims to, ensuring, do not want, applies to, might not be able to go, to speak out publicly, has kept, are regulating, a great deal of order, like, do not use, will choose, is speaking, should do, must obey, have to provide, should respect, must carry out.


2. Прочитайте формы сказуемого, которые переводятся на русский язык а) настоящим временем б) прошедшим временем в) будущим временем. Поставьте эти сказуемые в отрицательную форму.


will begin, have protected, is speaking, had taken, made, seek to do, shall have, are driving, has felt, were keeping, ensured, is going to take, will be necessary, deals with, am doing, flaws, was regulating, had chosen, have resolved, are arising, are going to do, will settle, drive, keeps, are applying, rejected, shall respect, imposed.


3. Прочитайте формы модального сказуемого, которые выражают а) возможность совершения действия б) необходимость совершения действия. Переведите их на русский язык. Выпишите в таблицу формы модальных глаголов и их эквивалентов.


We should and should not dо…; you may be forced to pay a fine…; everyone must obey…; we must drive our cars…; people were allowed to choose at random…; the law must provide…; it may provide a great deal of order…; the legal system should respect individual rights…; society should believe in…; the police and other public officials must carry out their public duties…; they will not be able to go to university…; the law should recognize and protect…; laws must reflect the changing needs of society…; the laws of all countries are to be found in written records…; they were allowed to sell…; you may wish to take legal action…; the police have to concentrate on certain crimes…; certain people are able to escape justice…; this relationship can be demonstrated…; they have to break…, people had to obeyed …, the case is to be heard…, the player might be sent to prison .


Должноствование Возможность Должноствование Возможность

Дополните таблицу недостающими формами, там, где это возможно. Скажите, какими грамматическими особенностями обладают модальные глаголы.

Past Present Future
  be able to do smth


had to do smth must  
  be allowed to do smth
will be permitted to do smth


  have to  
was to were to    

Переделайте предложения, заменив подлежащее местоимением в 3-м лице единственном числе. Подчеркните сказуемое каждого предложения.


  1. We could convince the police that we were innocent.
  2. I saw the accident but fortunately I didn’t have to give evidence as there were plenty of other witnesses.
  3. If you said that, we might be very offended.
  4. Different people might have different understanding of the laws.
  5. Laws, together with their judicial interpretations, must be simple enough so that people know what laws are and how to comply with them.
  6. When all five properties are satisfied, we can say that the positive legal order is "just."


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