Заполните таблицу недостающими словами, описывающими моральные качества человека, и переведите их на русский язык. 





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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Заполните таблицу недостающими словами, описывающими моральные качества человека, и переведите их на русский язык.



NOUN ADJECTIVE ADJECTIVE with negative meaning
empathy friendly cold
    insincere
integrity incorruptible  
    disrespectful
  humble arrogant
  competent  
resilience consistent  
fairness    
    unwise
  brave  

Посмотрите на рисунки и скажите, какими качествами обладают или не обладают, по Вашему мнению, изображенные на них персонажи. Используйте как можно больше слов из таблицы, а также соединительные союзы.

either... or -или ... или
neither...nor -ни ... ни
both ... and -как ... так и
as well as -также как
not only ...but -не только ... но и

4. Прочитайте текст и скажите: а) чем отличается понятие «этика» от понятия «нравственность»: б) в каких случаях профессиональная этика может не совпадать с нравственными представлениями человека.

The difference between ethics and morals can seem somewhat arbitrary to many, but there is a basic, albeit subtle, difference. Morals define personal character, while ethics stress a social system in which those morals are applied. In other words, ethics point to standards or codes of behaviour expected by the group to which the individual belongs. This could be national ethics, social ethics, company ethics, professional ethics, or even family ethics. So while a person’s moral code is usually unchanging, the ethics he or she practices can be other-dependent.

When considering the difference between ethics and morals, it may be helpful to consider a criminal defense lawyer. Though the lawyer’s personal moral code likely finds murder immoral and reprehensible, ethics demand the accused client be defended as vigorously as possible, even when the lawyer knows the party is guilty and that a freed defendant would potentially lead to more crime. Legal ethics must override personal morals for the greater good of upholding a justice system in which the accused is given a fair trial and the prosecution must prove his or her guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.

Обсудите предложенные ниже утверждения. Начните свое высказывание с одной из моделей.

Models:

I fully agree with the statement Полностью согласен с этим утверждением.

I am afraid, I can’t agree with it because К сожалению, не могу согласиться с этим,

потому что…

I am keeping an open mind for the moment Пока у меня нет никакого мнения на этот

Счет

I’m (not) sure that Я (не) уверен, что…

  1. Morality is like economics. You have to tend to everybody's interest; the difficulty is in striking the right balance.
  2. Morality is about behaving in ways that set a good example.
  3. In order to be moral you have to pay close attention to the impact of your decisions.
  4. When faced with a moral dilemma, I usually listen to my own conscience.
  5. By and large, morality is about doing what feels right.
  6. Dignity is a big part of my morality. Certain things I will not do, no matter what the stakes are.
  7. Morality is about living with a high standard of conduct.
  8. If only people listened to their inner voice, they would make better moral choices.
  9. In order to live morally in your day-to-day, you have to constantly step out of your shoes.
  10. I don’t care what other people do in private, as long as they don’t hurt others.
  11. Morality is about helping others and not harming them.
  12. In a way, morality is like art. When you see something, you know how you feel about it.
  13. If only people cared more about each other, they would make better moral decisions.
  14. The point of morality is to end suffering and promote happiness.
  15. As far as morality goes, my goal is to care about all people equally.
  16. At the end of the day, good moral decisions are those decisions you can live with.

 

UNIT2. LAWANDSCIENCE

 

Прочитайте и переведите текст.

TEXT

 

LAW AND SCIENCE

The philosophical foundation of the criminal justice system remains to protect the innocent and to ensure that the truth emerges for any matter before the court, thereby ensuring that justice is done. While crime laboratory scientists may pride themselves as being "independent finders of fact," most operate under police ju­risdiction or administration, and many scien­tists, perhaps unconsciously, develop the attitude that they work exclusively for the best interest of the police or the prosecutor.

When emotions overcome reason, a zeal­ous forensic scientist may intentionally or in­advertently deny real justice. Results are misinterpreted, or worse, falsified. Such science may not be easy to spot, since it can only appear through the results of the scientific investigation. While no one can ever attain anything close to a perfect harmony of reason with emotion, forensic scientists at least have a political duty to strike the best balance possible under life's most difficult circumstances. Of course, completely satisfying this duty remains both difficult and elusive. The commitment to ethics should be stressed in the education of a forensic scientist. The values inherent in "good science," including both these moral elements and the nonmoral elements distinguishing reliable from unreli­able scientific practice, should be a part of of­ficial forensic scientific curricula.

In the practical world, only the competence and rigorous honesty of the individuals pre­serve the philosophical basis of the criminal justice system designed to protect the inno­cent and expose the truth about complex ac­tions. The system works if, and only if, morally hon­est individuals hold key positions of power.

Without high ethical standards, forensic scientists may become what is known in the profession as hired guns*. The student considering this profession should resist the temptation of sellingwhat­ever opinion is needed by defenсe or prosecu­tion. Properly educated, experienced scientists may also act as gunslingers** through ignorance or misapplication of method. This might involve purposefully omit­ting relevant tests or suppressing relevant re­sults. Many such experts may develop an entirely unjustified sense of their own scien­tific abilities and observational powers.

In the real forensic sciences, individual scientists always work as members of a larger team, perhaps with other specialized scien­tists, law enforcement investigators, prosecu­tors, defenсe attorneys, judges, juries and the media, each contributing his or her efforts to­ward the bigger picture of a public trial, or an investigation capturing the public interest. The job of a forensic scientist is not one of glamorous celebrity***.

 

Notes:

* hired guns - a person, especially a professional killer, employed to kill-someone. The noun gun has been slang for a professional criminal since the mid-1800s.

**gunslinger, is a 20th century name, used in cinema or literature, referring to men in the American Old West who had gained a reputation as being dangerous with a gun.

*** a celebrityis a person who is easily recognized in a society or culture.

 

 

2. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты русским словам и словосочетаниям.

 

Система уголовного судопроизводства, ученые-криминалисты, прокурор, здравый смысл, намеренно или нечаянно, фальсифицировать, научное исследование, трудный для понимания, связь с этикой, учебный план, искушение, невежество (незнание), следователи правоохранительных органов, адвокаты, присяжные, судебный процесс.

 

 

3. Переведите на русский язык словосочетания из текста.

 

1. to protect the innocent

2. to ensure the truth

3. to operate under police ju­risdiction

4. to develop the attitude

5. to do justice

6. to deny real justice

7. to strike the best balance

8. to distinguish reliable from unreli­able scientific practice

9. to omit­ relevant tests

10. to contribute his or her efforts

 

4. Дополните предложения в соответствии с содержанием текста и переведите их на русский язык.

1. When emotions overcome reason, ………………. .

2. Most crime laboratory scientists operate under ……………… .

3. Forensic scientists at least have a political duty …………………. .

4. The values inherent in "good science,"………………….. .

5. The system works if, ……………….. .

6. ………………….. what is known in the profession as hired guns.

7. Properly educated, experienced scientists may also act as ………………. .

8. The job of a forensic scientist is …………………. .

 

5. Работа в подгруппах (3 -4 человека). Каждая подгруппа составляет по одному общему и специальному вопросу к каждому абзацу текста. Один представитель от каждой подгруппы отвечает на них. За каждый правильно составленный вопрос и правильный ответ подруппа получает один балл. Победителем объявляется подгруппа, получившая максимальное количество баллов. Преподаватель выступает в качестве арбитра.

 

 

6. Соотнесите слова из рамки и их определения.

 

 

 

a) Public official vested with the authority to hear, determine, and preside over legal matters brought in court.

b) Government attorney who presents the state's case against the defendant in a criminal process

c) A person who applies scientific knowledge and methodology to legal problems and criminal investigations.

d) Branch of philosophy that seeks to determine the correct application of moral notions such as good and bad and right and wrong

e) The upholding of what is just, especially fair treatment and due reward in accordance with honor, standards, or law.

f) A person with a high degree of skill in or knowledge of a certain subject.

g) Examination of evidence and applicable law by a competent tribunal to determine the issue of specified charges or claims.

7. По образцу предыдущего задания дайте определения понятиям из текста, связанным с профессиональной этикой. Воспользуйтесь толковым словарем или Интернет-ресурсом (Wikipedia).

 

 


8. Прочитайте высказывания известных людей и заполните пропуски соответствующими словами из предыдущего задания. Выскажите свое мнение по поводу каждого из них. Начните свои высказывания с одной из фраз, данной в модели.

Models:

Hmm, I’m not sure, but … - Не уверен, но …

I’m of two minds, but … - Не знаю, на что решиться, но …

I can’t make up my mind, but … - Не могу принять решение, но …

I don’t think it’s reasonable to believe that … - Я не думаю, что есть основания полагать, что …

I absolutely agree that …- Я абсолютно согласен, что …

1. In the 21st Century ____________ can be famous simply by being in the right place at the right time. They are the nobodies, turned somebodies, and are often turned into somebodies based on the ridiculous things they do. - (Andy Warhol)

2. "Most men seem to live according to sense rather than__________." – (St. Thomas Aquinas)

3. "___________ is the best policy." – (Benjamin Franklin)

4. "If I feel depressed I will sing. If I feel sad I will laugh. If I feel ill I will double my labor. If I feel fear I will plunge ahead. If I feel inferior I will wear new garments. If I feel uncertain I will raise my voice. If I feel poverty I will think of wealth to come. If I feel incompetent I will think of past success. If I feel insignificant I will remember my goals. Today I will be the master of my _____________." – (Og Mandino)

5. "He who lives in ______________ with himself lives in _____________ with the universe." – (Marcus Aurelius)

6. "The higher the building the lower the __________." – (Noel Coward)

7. "Do not worry about avoiding ________________. As you grow older it will avoid you." – (Joey Adams)

 

 





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