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ACTIVE to build to be building to have built to have been building
PASSIVE to be built   to have been built  

1.The company will have to builda new trading centre next year.

2.The company is said to be buildinga new trading centre now.

3.The company is said to have builta new trading centre last year.

4.The company is said to have been buildingthis trading centre for two years.

5.A new trading gentre is said to obeuilthere eext year.

6.The new trading centre is said to have been builttwo months ago.

Task 1.11. FUNCTIONS OF THE INFINITIVE. Read the sentences, translate them into Ukrainian and put questions to the underlined words:

Subject:To patent an invention means to register it in the Patent Office.

Part of the Predicate:Their task was to design a new academic building. Students must

take four exams during this examination session. Object:He wants to create a new computer game.

Attribute:The department bought computers to be installed in this laboratory. Adverbial Modifier:(In order) to compile a program, you should know the

programming language.



Read and compare these sentences:

I noticed that he entered the laboratory. I noticed him enter the laboratory.

The statements are adequate, but they differ in structure. The first sentence is complex, and the second one is simple with the so-called complex object “him enter” which consists of a noun or a pronoun in the objective case and an infinitive with or without particle “to ”. The second sentence is more characteristic of modern English. The verbs followed by a complex object can be subdivided into three groups:

(a) the verbs expressing a will, requirement, request or permission (to want, desire,
require, demand, request, allow, permit, etc.) which are followed by the infinitive with
theparticle “to
", e.g.

His parents want him to become a manager.

(b) the verbs of mental perception (to know, think, believe, consider, find, expect,
suppose, etc.) which are followed by the infinitive with the particle “to” , e.g.

We suppose her to be working on her course project now.

(c) the verbs of sense perception (to see, watch, notice, hear, feel, etc.) and verbs “to let”
and “to make” which are followed by the infinitive without “to”, e.g.

I’ve heard them speak German.

Task 1.12. Choose proper forms to fill out the gaps:

1. They saw several students of the faculty................. in the computer clas..

a) to work b) work ct to have worked

2. We suppose the recent sensational achievements in genetics.................... with the progress

in mathematics.

a) to be connected b) to have connected cc )o connect

3. Scientists consider the concept of function .................... of great importance not only in

pure mathematics but also in practical application.

a) be b) to be c) have been

4. They didn’t expect him.................... such compiicated computer operation..

a) perform b) to be performed c) to perform

5.1 heard you.................. the main issues of your diploma project with your superviso..

a) discuss b) tb be discussed c) to have discussed

6. My research supervisor wants the report for the scientific conferencc..................... in three


a) to complete b) complete ct to be completed

Engineering profession

7. We think them .................. no problems with iinding jobs according to therr qualifi­

a) has b) to be having c) to have

8. The specialists watched the new measuring device....................... in the laboratory.

a) to be tested b) be tested c) have been tested

9. They know Karl Frederick Gauss ................ such problems of applied mathematics as

passing Ught through a system of lenses.

a) to investigate b) to have investigated c) to be investigated

10. The lecturer wished the listeners.................. their views and ideas on the subjec..

a) to exchange b) to be exchanged c) exchange


Read and compare these sentences:

They say that you have already defen­ded your diploma project.

You are said to have already defended your diploma project.

The statements are adequate. The difference lies in their structure. The first sentence is complex and the second one is simple with the so-called complex subject (“you... to have defended”) where the infinitive is always used with the particle “to”. The verbs which may function as predicates in sentences with a complex subject can be subdivided into the following groups:

(a) the verbs of sense perception (to see, notice, observe, hear, etc.) in Passive Voice:

He was seen to enter the dean’s office.

(b) the verbs of mental perception (to know, think, believe, consider, find, expect,
assume, suppose, etc.Lin Passive Voice:

She is known to have been working at this department for twenty years,

(c) the verbs “to say”, “to report”, “to want”, etc. in Passive Voice:

They were said to have been invited to this conference.

(d) the verbs “to seem”, “to appear”, “to happen”, “to prove”, “to turn out”, etc. in
Active Voice:

He seems to have failed his exam in maths.

(e) the expressions “tp be sure”, “to be (un) likely'V'to be certain”:

She is sure to complete her course project next week.


Task 1.13. Use Complex Subject instead of the subordinate clauses, e.g.:

• It is known that the Faculty was founded in 1993.

• The faculty is known to have been founded in 1993.


1. It is considered that mathematics is a handyman for all sciences.

2. It seems that all modern mathematics concentrates around the concept of function.

3. It was reported that the progress in microelectronics had given rise to progress in data

processing machinery.

4. It is believed that programming is the process of preparing sets of instructions.

5. We are sure that our students will apply their theoretical knowledge to practice in the

laboratories of the faculty.

6. It is likely that they have done all necessary calculations.

7. It is known that the invention of the calculus is sometimes ascribed to two men,

Newton and Leibniz.

8. It is said that Euclid’s Elements is better known than any other mathematical book.

9. It was stated that mathematics experienced a very strong influence of other sciences.

10. It is certain that the word “computer” has come from a Latin word which means “to

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