The Infinitive Constructions 





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The Infinitive Constructions



Ex. 4. Translate the sentences with the Complex Object.

1. I suppose her not to be guilty.

2. I consider him to be an honest man.

3. The teacher found them to be very clever students.

4. The witness saw the woman enter the house and leave it twenty minutes later.

5. The police officer wanted the young man to be invited here.

6. I should like you to tell me the truth.

7. The students liked the lessons to be conducted in the lab.

8. The investigator expected him to give all the information about that fact.

9. We believe the prevention of crime to be one of the main functions of militia.

10. The policeman saw the criminal run away.

11. We consider the traces to be very important for the investigation.

12. We all know him to be a highly qualified detective.

Ex. 5. Translate the sentences with the Complex Subject and For to Infinitive Construction. Ask and answer the questions using the information given in the sentences.

1. At the national level crime is seen to be a social illness and a by-product of the social system within the state.

2. That evidence proved to be very important.

3. Our laws are known to protect the interests of all the people.

4. He was expected to give the truthful information.

5. That investigator is considered to be an experienced lawyer.

6. The crime is reported to have been committed by a group of young people.

7. The British Constitution is considered to be unwritten because it is not codified as a whole in any particular document.

8. The police officer happened to be present at the crime scene at the moment the offense was committed.

9. Criminality is considered to be a social phenomenon.

10. I happened to be there at the time of robbery.

11. The investigator is expected to solve the crime quickly.

12. The criminal investigation department is considered to be one of the most complicated militia services.

13. He seems to be investigating that complicated case.

14. It is for society to offer strong resistance to crime and its influence in every sphere of life.

15. That is for court to find whether he is quilty or not.

16. There are laws for people to protect their rights, property, liberty and life.

17. The best thing for you to do is to start working.

18. There is nobody here for us to rely on.

19. Magna carta, or Great Charter, is known to have been signed beg king John in 1215 under the threat of civil war.

20. The Bill of Rights (1689) Proved to be the basic instrument of the British Constitution.

Ex. 6. Read and translate the following sentences. Define the forms of the Infinitive and Infinitive Constructions if any.

1. Nowadays crimes turn to become more dangerous to the individuals.

2. In America a complicated machinery is necessary to alter the Constitution whereas in England it is rather easy to alter the laws.

3. The English Constitution is considered to be flexible because Parliament can ‘make or unmake’ any law rather easily.

4. To alter the Constitution it is not necessary to have a complicated machinery in England, so all laws can be altered with ease.

5. In theory the Sovereign in the United Kingdom is regarded to be an active party to the making of laws, but in practice he has a shadowy veto.

6. In order to understand English Constitutional law you should study numerous documents, various statutes, judicial decisions and others.

7. Though the king is supposed to be the nominal Sovereign, any particular Parliament during the period of its existence is legally supreme.

8. The correctional establishments are supposed to rehabilitate the offenders through labour.

9. Most of historians regard the US Constitution to be a conservative document.

10. This evidence proved to have helped the investigator in solving the crime.

11. The people watched the policeman protect the crime scene.

12. This young man is unlikely to have committed a crime.

13. These facts are expected to help identify the offender.

14. The person to be interviewed is supposed to have witnessed the crime.

15. This case is unlikely to be investigated quickly.

16. It’s for the policy of state to adjust to the changes happening in society and to react to them effectively.


Ex. 7. Read the sentences with: 1) Complex Object; 2) Complex Subject; 3) for Infinitive construction and Infinitive as an Attribute. Translate the sentences.

1. It is for the state to protect the people and society from crime.

2. The criminal to be arrested must be identified and located first.

3. Extreme egoism and individualism are considered to be the objective and subjective basic tendencies of criminal behavior.

4. The laboratory examination of certain physical evidence is considered, in some types of offenses, to be the most important part of the investigation.

5. The investigating officer supposed the discovered evidence to be linked with the suspect.

6. The police officer planned the search of the crime scene to be conducted very thoroughly.

7. The person to be identified committed a serious crime.

8. The investigator reported of the defendant's innocence to have been proved.

9. The facts to be collected by the police officer must provide sufficient evidence to bring the criminal to justice.

10. The police happened to have located the dangerous fugitive rather quickly.

11. The defendant's fingerprints proved to be the only means of identifying the victim.

12. Vice crimes are often considered essentially to be «victimless» crimes.

13. We expect our future detectives to learn how to use informants through personal experience.

14. The material evidence to be examined in the FBI Laboratory will be sufficient to convict the defendant.

15. The last witness to be interviewed was, a narrow-shouldered young man who had been the only one in the place to have seen the bandit.

16. On the day this robbery is supposed to have been committed he swears he was working in the library all day.

17. Books by Conan Doyle are known to have been translated in our country.

Ex. 8Translate into English

1. В Англии существуют два вида юристов: поверенные и адвокаты.

2. Поверенные имеют дело с мелкими преступлениями и некоторыми супружескими делами в Магистратских судах.

3. По гражданскому делу поверенный может выступать в Суде графства, если дело касается развода или взыскания долгов.

4. Чтобы получить квалификацию поверенного, необходимо сдать экзамен Юридического образца и нет необходимости поступать в университет.

5. К адвокату обращаются за консультацией по действительно трудным вопросам.

6. Адвокаты – это эксперты в толковании права.

7. Чтобы получить квалификацию адвоката вы должны сдать экзамен Совету Адвокатов.

8. Только адвокаты могут стать судьями в английском суде выше Магистратского.

9. Судьи Магистратского суда – это обычные люди, которые выбираются не из-за юридической подготовки, а потому, что они обладают здравым смыслом и понимают людей.

10. Судьи Верховного суда имеют дело с наиболее серьезными преступлениями.

11. Судьи решают, что делать с людьми, которые совершили преступление.

12. В Британии огромное большинство судий не получают зарплату, и они отдают свое время добровольно.

Prepositions

Ex. 9. Supply an appropriate preposition for each blank space.

… most countries, once a lawyer is fully qualified he receives a certificate proving his right to sell his services. There are also insurance provisions so that if a lawyer is ever successfully sued ... a client ... professional incompetence there will be funds available to enable him to pay damages — which may be extremely large... the case... lawyers dealing ... property transactions. Even if a lawyer is very competent, he must take care not to break many rules ... procedure and ethics set... the body which regulates his profession ... England, the body regulating the conduct ... solicitors is the Law Society. Among other things, it sets rules ... lawyers accounting procedures and investigates complaints against lawyers... their clients. There is also a Solicitor's Disciplinary Tribunal ... the power to suspend or even disqualify. Since its members are themselves solicitors some people fear that it may not be completely impartial. But members... the public do, of course, have the right to sue their solicitor, for example ... an action ... negligence.

Modal Verbs

Ex. 10. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to modal verbs and their equivalents:

1. In order to understand English Constitutional law you should study numerous documents, various statutes, judicial decisions and others.

2. You needn't look for the Constitution of Great Britain in one document; it is not codified as a whole in any particular document.

3. The English Constitution is flexible because Parliament can ‘make or unmake’ any law by the same procedure and with the same ease.

4. Sometimes it may be said that under the English Constitution the remedy precedes the right.

5. To administer justice the Judges have to enjoy little arbitrary power because the law which they administer is defined by statutes and by judicial precedents.

6. Theory and practice are divergent and it can be seen from a number of illustrations.

7. The judges ought to act according to the law.

8. In some states a case may be completely retried in a higher court, but this is the exception rather than the rule.

Text B. Read and translate the text. Get ready to discuss the main points.





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