ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
The Center of Government and Justice
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King Edward the Confessor first decided to build a palace beside the River Thames in the 11th century. His successors extended the palace and made it their main residence. Gradually, Westminster became the center of government and justice. At first, Parliament was organized by the monarch as a way of governing the country. He or she called different groups together: the Lords represented the Church and aristocracy whilst the Commons were used by the rich land-owners to put forward the views and interests of their own town or village.
Over the centuries power gradually passed from the monarch to Parliament but not without a few problems. During the reign of James I, for example, Guy Fawkes tried to blow up Parliament. James' son, Charles I, thought that he could rule the country without the help of Parliament, but these dreams led to his death. He tried to make parliament do what he wanted, but after years of quarrelling he finally lost his patience. One day he burst into the House of Commons with several hundred men and tried to arrest its leaders. They had already escaped. But the struggle between king and parliament was not finished and the country was thrown into a civil war, which only stopped when Charles was finally beheaded in 1649.
The Queen still opens the new session of Parliament each autumn by reading 'the Queen's Speech', which describes the main policies of the Government. However, this takes place in the House of Lords and she is not allowed to enter the House of Commons. This tradition goes back to the time of Charles I, more than three hundred years ago, and reminds everybody that the monarch must not try to govern the country.
Westminster Abbey. Opposite the Houses of Parliament stands Westminster Abbey. A church has stood here since Saxon times when, in the year 750 AD, a Benedictine Abbey was founded. It was known as West Monastery (Westminster), from its position 3 miles (five kilometres) west of London's centre. From Norman times British monarchs have been crowned there and since the 13th century they have been buried there. Many other famous people are also buried in Westminster Abbey including statesmen, musicians and writers.
a. A knowledge of law is a necessity for any person.
b. Every country tries to provide laws.
c. British law comes from two main sources.
d. Legal System of Great Britain.
e. Ancient legal codes.
f. The Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
g. Westminster – the Center of government and justice.
a) Англо-саксонская правовая семья или семья ²общего права²
В отличие от государств романо-германской правовой семьи, где основным источником права является закон, в государствах англо-саксонской правовой семьи основным источником права служит судебный прецедент, нормы, сформулированные судьями в их решениях. Это означает, что однажды сформулированное судебное решение становится обязательным для всех других судей.
Проблема соотношения закона и судебного прецедента в Англии своеобразна. Внешне она решается просто - закон может отменить прецедент, а при коллизии закона и прецедента приоритет отдается первому. Но при этом необходимо иметь в виду огромную роль судебного толкования закона, которое дано ему в предшествующих судебных решениях, именуемых «прецедентами толкования». В Англии предпочитают цитировать вместо текста закона судебные решения, в которых он применен.
В англо-саксонскую правовую семью входят наряду с США и Англией Северная Ирландия, Канада, Австрия, Новая Зеландия, а также 36 государств - членов Британского Содружества.
«Семья общего права», как и римского права, развивалась на основе принципа: «Право там, где есть его защита». Несмотря на все попытки кодификации, дополнения и совершенствования положениями «права справедливости», оно в основе своей является прецедентным правом, созданным судами. Однако это не исключает возрастания роли статутного (законодательного) права, которое является обязательным для всей Англии.
b) Законодательство на территории Беларуси в Средние Века
1. Политико-правовые идеи мыслителей XVI столетия получили свое развитие и были закреплены в Статутах ВКЛ 1528, 1566, 1588 годов.
2. Все три Статута были проникнуты идеей правового суверенитета.
3. Ряд норм Статута подчеркивали стремление законодателей придерживаться принципов законности и справедливости.
4. Нарушение закона рассматривалось как злодеяние против интересов государства.
5. Закон стремился защитить не только сословные интересы личности, но личные права каждого свободного человека.
6. Закон закрепил такие важные конституционные права как право на защиту жизни, чести, собственности, защиту в суде, право свободного выезда за границу для дворянства, право представительства в органах государственной власти и судах.
7. Статуты положили начало значительным изменениям в судебной системе и судопроизводстве.
8. Новые суды строились на принципе независимости от административной власти.
9. Была реализована идея создания высшего апелляционного суда ВКЛ.
10. Как правовые памятники эпохи Возрождения, Статуты основывались на идее гуманизма.
11. Статуты были написаны на белорусском языке, и язык законов был понятен всем гражданам государства.
12. Даже через 200 лет после издания Статут 1588 года считался самым выдающимся сводом законов в Европе.
13. Гуманистическая направленность Статута проявляется в тех нормах, которые определяли положение женщины в обществе.
14. Закон гарантировал женщинам право свободно выходить замуж, свободно распоряжаться своим имуществом, запрещал смертную казнь беременных женщин.
15. Была введена норма, которая предусматривала смертную казнь дворянина за убийство простого человека. В польском праве такая норма появилась только в 1768 году.
16. Статут 1588 г. был одним из первых законодательных актов Европы, который содержал нормы, направленные на охрану окружающей среды.
Subject of study
Texts: A. Crime
C. Juvenile Delinquency
D. Crime Prevention
E. Measures to Combat Terrorism
Constructions with the Gerund
The Gerund and the Infinitive
Text A. Read and translate the text. Do the exercises given below.
Crime is categorized as a part of public law – the law regulating the relations between citizens and the state. Crimes can be thought of as acts which the state considers to be wrong and which can be punished by the state.
In many legal systems it is an important principle that a person cannot be considered guilty of a crime until the state proves he committed it. The suspect himself need not prove anything, although he will of course help himself if he can show evidence of his innocence. The state must prove his guilt according to high standards; and for each crime there are precise elements which must be proven. In codified systems, these elements are usually recorded in statutes. In common law systems, the elements of some crimes are detailed in statutes; others, known as "common law crimes," are still described mostly in case law. Even where there is a precise statute, the case law interpreting the statute may be very important since the circumstances of each crime may be very different.
There are usually two important elements of a crime: (i) the criminal act itself; and (ii) the criminal state of mind of the person when he committed the act. In Anglo-American law these are known by the Latin terms of (i) Actus Reus and (ii) Mens Rea.
The state must prove the defendant did the necessary acts (actus reus) beyond reasonable doubt. This means that the balance scales must tip to their near maximum. Since punishment is the remedy, we want to be certain that we only punish the guilty, not the innocent.
Defendant must have done the acts with a level of knowledge (mens rea, guilty mind) declared in the statute. Over time, and in order of importance today, this necessary mental state was determined to be: intentional, reckless, or negligent conduct, or strict liability.
Intent has its own set of definitions:
Specific intent: Defendant has a determination of mind to commit at least one of the required elements of a criminal offenсe. Example: first degree murder normally requires proof of premeditation, which is a matter of intent found to be existent before picking up the gun, to do an act (shoot the gun) and bring about a result (kill the person).
Transferred intent convicts a person of a result, which he did not intend, but which was a result of the illegal act. Example: I intend to kill A by shooting, but miss and kill B, whom I love and would never kill. My intent to kill A is transferred to B; I am guilty of murder.
Implied intent: We are rational people, intelligent and understanding; so intent to do an act may be implied from doing of the act.
Strict liability: Here there is no need for a mental status. We are liable for doing the act without defence. Example: sexual intercourse with a female under a specified age (statutory rape). Your belief concerning her age (even a reasonable belief) is no defence.
Crime has three major types: crime against person; crime against property; and crime against the public order.
A crime against person always involves force or threat of force against the body of another (murder, battery, rape, robbery, extortion, kidnapping, etc.).
Crimes against property are distinguished by an absence of force against a person and loss of property (theft, embezzlement, false pretenses, forgery, burglary, arson, etc.).
Crimes against public order include rioting, treason, and most of the "victimless" crimes (prostitution, sale of pornography, drug deals). Violence to person or loss of property may or may not be present. What is present, is behavior seen harmful to the integrity of community to such an extent as to call for criminal punishment. Sometimes we see these as "moral crimes".
There are a number of offences concerned with obstructing justice: perjury, assisting offenders, concealing, refusal to assist a police officer, contempt of court. There are so-called inchoate offences: aiding and abetting, incitement, conspiracy, attempt.
As for the classification of crime there is the concept of “arrestable” and “non-arrestable” offences. An arrestable offence is one for which no specific arrest warrant is required. A police officer can arrest without a magistrate’s warrant for a suspected crime carrying maximum of five years’ imprisonment or more or where the penalty is fixed by law as is the case of murder, treason.
When an offence is a non-arrestable offence warrants are issued when the defendant has failed to answer a summons and the magistrates think it essential that he should be present at a hearing.
Another way of classification is by the manner of trial. Criminal offences may be divided into two main classes: indictable offences and offences punishable on summary conviction before magistrates (summary offences). Indictable offences are tried by a jury. They may be regarded as serious ones and summary cases as less serious or minor.
Ex. 1. Read the words. Mind the stress.
Ex. 2. Give nouns derived from the following verbs:
to ban, to kill, to arrest, to suspect, to offend, to omit, to punish, to legislate, to wound, to aid, to abet, to incite, to assist, to abolish, to convict, to accuse.
Ex. 3. Pair the verbs in column B with a suitable phrase in column A:
Ex. 4. Add nouns to the following adjectives to form noun phrases:
Adjectives: wrongful, criminal, changing, fatal, serious, summary, mental, guilty.
Nouns: act, omission, behaviour, activity, matter, habits, norms, offence, crimes, case, element, conviction, mind, action.
Ex. 5. How many different adjectives combined with the word “offence” do you know?
Ex. 6. Complete the following table.
Ex. 7. Choose the most suitable word or phrase in each sentence.
1. Sally didn't realize that she had broken/countered/denied the law.
2. The police have banned/cancelled/refused parking in this street.
3. I must remember to get a/an agreement/license/permission for my television.
4. The president admitted that there had been a breakdown of law and crime/ government/order.
5. Jim's parents wouldn't agree/allow/let him go to the demonstration.
6. Carlos was arrested because he had entered the country falsely/illegally/wrongly.
7. Talking to other students is against the law/orders/rules of the examination.
8. The two men were arrested before they could commit/make/perform any more crimes.
9. I had to take the company to court/justice/law to get the money they owed me.
10. Smoking is compulsory/prohibited/refused near the petrol tanks.
Ex. 8. Match the crimes and offences with the correct definition.
Ex. 9. Match a word with a proper definition.
Ex. 10. Fill in the missing crimes and offences in the sentences below. Choose from the words in the previous two exercises.
1. The chief cashier admitted taking £30,000 of the firm's money during the previous three years and was found guilty of _____.
2. She sued the newspaper for ______ when it printed a story about her in which it claimed she had once been arrested for taking drugs.
3. The supermarket decided to install closed-circuit television in order to combat the problem of _______.
4. This is the sixth fire in the area in the past month. The police suspect ____.
5. He pleaded not guilty to murder but guilty to ______ saying that the gun had gone off and killed his wife by accident.
6. There have been so many cases of _______ in the street recently that the police are advising residents to install alarms and to notify neighbours when they go out.
7. The customs officer found nearly £20,000 worth of cut diamonds hidden in the man's guitar case. He was arrested and charged with _______.
8. Pop stars and famous people often employ bodyguards for themselves and members of their families as they are constantly worried about _______.
9. Most people of my generation remember the ____ of President Kennedy in Dallas in November 1963.
10. It looked like a real £20 note but on closer examination you could see that it was a very clever _______.
Ex. 11. Choose the best alternative to complete the following sentences:
1. A person who commits a criminal offence is called a criminal, or ______.
2. If you attack another person illegally you will be tried for unlawful ______.
3. If you physically hurt or injure the person you attack, you will be tried for unlawful assault causing ______.
4. If the injury you cause in the attack is very serious it is called ______.
5. A police officer can arrest ______ for a suspected crime carrying a maximum of five year imprisonment.
6. The law can punish criminals in many different ways, but the worst is ______.
7. Young people who committed a crime are tried by a special court called the….
8. Most schools in my country no longer have…..punishment.
9. The policemen following the robbers were in…..clothes.
10. The two old ladies were…..of their purses.
11. At the end of the story, the hero manages to arrest the…..
12. I had to answer the question because it was…..
13. Charles could not…..having been at the scene of the crime.
14. As there was no evidence, the judge dismissed the…..
15. If your dog damages your neighbour's property, you could be…..
16. After ten years in prison, Stephen was …. and set free.
17. The detective inspector told the young …. to make some tea.
Ex. 12. Complete each part of the sentence from a) to j) with one of the endings from1) to 10). Use each ending once only.
a) I decided to buy a burglar alarm after someone had broken…….
b) When Alan was stopped outside the supermarket he ended…….
c) As it was Sheila's first offence she was let…….
d) After climbing over the prison wall, Peter managed to get…….
e) The old couple who live opposite were taken…….
f) At the end of the trial Hilary was found…….
g) My neighbours admitted denting my car but got away…….
h) The bank at the end of the street was held…….
i) Nobody saw Jack cheating and he got away with…….
j) The hijackers took fifteen people…….
1. in by a salesman who cheated them out of their money.
2. away by stealing a car parked nearby.
3. up at the police station, charged with shoplifting.
4. it, although everyone suspected what had happened.
5. into my house and stole my stereo.
6. off with only a warning.
7. with paying only £50 damages.
8. hostage and demanded £1,000,000 from the authorities.
9. guilty and sentenced to six months in prison.
10. up by two masked men last week.
Ex. 13. Complete each sentence with a word from the list. Use each word once only.
accused evidence guilty lawyer statement
a) The customs officers arrested Bob and…………him with smuggling.
b) The police spent all morning searching the house for………...
c) Jean left her car in a no-parking area and had to pay a/an…………..
d) Unfortunately at the end of the trial my brother was found……….
e) The trial took a long time as the……….couldn't reach a verdict.
f) George won his case because he had a very good defence…………..
g) The police visited Dawn and asked her to make a/an…………..
h) Because of his past criminal record, Brian was the main……..…..
i) Pauline decided to sue the police because she had been wrongly………...
j) The murderer of the children received a life…………...
Ex. 14. Complete the sentences from part A by adding the phrases given in part B:
Ex. 1. Mark the statements which are true. Prove your idea.
1. Criminal law covers a multitude of activities and sins.
2. The courts must respond to all forms of criminal activity.
3. The criminal behaviour is not seen as serious or deviant for the majority of society to ban it.
4. The police officer can arrest without a specific warrant for any suspected crime.
5. The defendant had failed to answer a summons and the magistrates decided to bring him before a court.
6. A conviction cannot be secured unless it is shown that both actus reus and mens rea were present.
7. The burden of proof lies upon the Jury.
Ex. 2. Use the word from the box to form a word that fits in the space. Speak about Tom’s crime.
Tom's Life of Crime
innocent thief offend steal defend
At his last trial, nobody believed in Tom's (1)………...He had been accused of the (2)……….of a valuable Chinese vase, and was also charged with ten other (3)……….The value of the (4)……….goods was said to be over £10,000. Tom said in his own (5)……….that the vase had been put into his car (6)……….He also pointed out that the Chinese vase was a fake, and was almost (7)……….The judge did not believe Tom's story. He told Tom he was a hardened (8)……….and that he deserved a severe (9)……….When the judge sentenced Tom to five years (10)………. Tom just smiled. He had spent most of his life in prison and so he was used to it.
Ex. 3. Write down 10 questions you could ask speaking about “crime.” Begin your questions differently, like this:
Did …? Are…? Have …?
Who …? Why …? How long …?
In what cases…?
What measures …? etc.
Ex. 4. Decide which answer A, B, C or D best fits each space. Speak about inspector Ronald Lewis’s investigation.
'I think I know the identity of the murderer,' said Inspector Ronald Lewis, 'and at (1)….. one of the guests in this hotel was a/an (2)….. to the crime, probably by (3)….. I believe that the same guest is also a (4)….., and has been given money by the killer.' 'So whoever (5)….. this terrible crime is still here,' I said. 'But of course. In (6)….. he – or she – is in this room, and will soon be (7)….. arrest.' There was silence for a moment. I noticed that everyone was trying to look (8)….., but they a11 looked guilty instead! 'Do you have any (9)…... Inspector,' asked Lady Grimshaw finally, 'or are you simply (10)…… people for fun? If you intend to (11)….. someone, you should do it now.' The Inspector smiled. 'I asked you here (12)….. purpose, Lady Grimshaw. I have been reading your (13)….. you see, and it is quite clear that you have told several (14)….. ''How dare you!' Lady Grimshaw spluttered. 'Do you (15) ….. that you were with Tim Dawson in the garden on the night of the murder?' the Inspector said? 'You forgot about the security cameras, you see...
Ex. 5. Put crimes in order you think best on the ladder below, starting with the minor and ending with the most serious.
*most serious offences
* minor offences
b) Give reasons for the position of each crime. Use as many words and phrases from the text as possible.
Ex. 6. Fill in the chart.
Ex. 7. Put the sentences in the logical order to make a text.
1. A principal in the first degree is the person who actually did the criminal act.
2. An accessory after the fact is one who assists or permits the escape of the criminal.
3. Principles may be either in the first or in the second degree.
4. The accessories may be either before or after the fact.
5. The person who commits the crime is the principle.
6. An accessory before the fact is one who advises or procures it to be done.
7. A principal in the second degree is the person who is present at the commission of a crime.
8. The person who plays a second role, assists the principal, is the accomplice.
9. Accomplices may be charged with procuring an offence, abetting, aiding or counselling.
Ex. 8. Fill in the following chart and comment on it. Use the information in ex 7.
Ex. 9. Put the following sentences in the logical order and make stories. Discuss them.
1. In the eyes of law, children under the age of 10 are incapable of performing a crime.
2. A great percentage of adult offenders started their careers as criminals between 14 and 21 years of age.
3. In many countries the meaning of juvenile delinquency is so broad that it embraces all manifestations of juvenile behaviour.
4. Juvenile delinquency is often regarded as a social problem.
5. Psychological factor is called among factors causing juvenile delinquency.
6. Treatment of juvenile offenders embraces all types of methods and measures, including disciplinary measures and punishment.
1. $10,000 was stolen from a bank in the High Street.
2. The police questioned a number of people about the crime.
3. And they finally arrested two men.
4. They questioned them at the police station.
5. And charged them with the robbery
6. The trial took place two months later.
7. After the jury had listened to all the evidence, they found the men guilty.
8. They were sent to prison for seven years.
Ex. 10. What problems can be discussed with the help of the following groups of words:
1. perpetrator, group rape, conspiracy, to play a secondary role, to assist, the first degree, the second degree, the accessory before or after the fact;
2. to do criminal act, actually, to be guilty of criminal omission, through an innocent agent, to be present at the commission of a crime;
3. to advise, to procure, an accessory, to countermand, to assist, to permit the escape of the criminal.
Ex. 11. Explain and expand on the following:
1. A young person is judged capable of criminal intentions in the same way as an adult.
2. The disintegration of the family is also a contributory cause of juvenile delinquency.
3. The selection of staff in charge of treatment is particularly important in the treatment of juvenile offenders.
Ex. 12. Work with the partner and give your opinion about each of the following statemenst. Your partner should agree or disagree and say why.
1. The idea of crime prevention programmes (in your country).
2. Television provokes violent crimes.
3. Poverty and crime rate.
Ex. 1. Choose the most suitable word or phrase in each sentence.
1. Harry was told that fishing in the lake was against/by/over the law.
2. Catherine led a secret life for/in/of crime before she was caught.
3. Having trouble with your phone? Send it at/for/to Fix-a-phone!
4. I regret to tell you that you are for/in/under arrest.
5. I only attacked the young man from/in/with self-defence.
6. David was often at/in/with trouble with the police when he was young.
7. The robbers' car was hidden below/by/from sight behind the bank.
8. The kidnappers have been caught, and the child is no longer at/in/on danger.
9. Tony was caught by a policeman who was off/out/away from duty and cycling to work.
10. 10.The thieves took the wrong painting by/in/under mistake.
11. 11.The suspicious manager left the safe unlocked from/on/with purpose.
12. 12.The robbers met to plan the bank raid from/in/with secret.
Ex. 2. State the form of the Gerund:
having been booked; being punished; having released; having been fingerprinted; being convicted; having been identified; having filed, being imposed; having been prosecuted; having appealed; being accused; having been charged; being arraigned; having been sentenced; having fined; being corrected; having been rehabilitated.
Ех. 3. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1. There is a need to develop a concept of state policy for preventing juvenile crimes.
2. After having been identified the offender was arrested by the police.
3. The court suspected the evidence of having been obtained unlawfully.
4. He was charged with not having taken the victim to a hospital after the accident.
5. Who is responsible for the criminals not having been arrested yet?
6. In this case the arrest preceded a formal accusation having been made by a police officer who witnessed the offence.
7. The police accused the driver of being drunk.
8. Preventing youth crime is perhaps the most important objective of the state.
9. A person arrested at a crime scene for having committed an offense must be brought before a magistrate within a limited period of time.
10. The defendant was not informed of the right of being provided with legal counsel at the trial.
11. Under established rules, some evidence is inadmissible, especially if there is doubt of its being obtained lawfully.
12. The police suspected him of having been prosecuted before.
13. One of the aspects of punishment implies that an offender must be afraid of being punished.
14. The witness insisted on having seen the criminal quite clearly.
15. Instead of being placed in jail the accused was released on bail.
16. The man was accused of having violated the traffic rules.
Ex. 4. Rewrite each sentence using the gerund if possible so that it has the same meaning.
They said that John had stolen the money.
They accused John of steeling the money.
1. Ian said that he hadn't punched anybody.
2. 'OK, Andy, you can go now,' said the detective.
The detective gave Andy
3. 'James Frogget, you will go to prison for ten years,' said the judge.
The judge sentence
4. 'I forged the signature,' said Mary.
5. Harry stole £30,000 and was arrested.
Harry was arrested
6. 'We saw the accused break into the car,' said the witnesses.
The witnesses stated………
7. Graham said that he hadn’t gone to the police station.
8. 'It's true,' said Norman, 'I murdered Alan.'
Norman confessed to ………
9. 'Can you come with me, please,' the detective said to Helen.
The detective asked…………
Ex. 5. Define the “ing-forms” in the following sentences.
1. Belarus is working effectively with other countries on finding a solution to the environment crisis.
2. After making the arrest the officer may search the premises for evidence of the guilt of the arrested person.
3. The preliminary hearing is regarded as a protection of the citizen against detention following an unwarranted arrest.
4. The problem of obtaining a warrant for arrest is of growing importance.
5. It must be remembered that just because a person is arrested does not mean that he will be charged with a crime. In fact, very often the police make arrest but have no intentions of making charges.
6. The key element of arrest is taking a person into custody to control the movements of that person.
7. Booking is usually accompanied by picture taking and fingerprinting.
8. Agents of the FBI are mainly concerned with gathering and recording of information in order to present a case for prosecution.
9. Arresting a person is taking him into custody for the purpose of charging him with a specific offense.
10. If the accused is charged with committing a misdemeanour he may be convicted at the arraignment.
11. If evidence was obtained by the law enforcement agency without observing the constitutional rights of the accused, the accused may ask the court to prevent the evidence from being used in his trial.
12. Any criminal investigation starts with a patrol car being sent to the crime scene.
13. Some tasks relating to the investigation of crimes that detectives are responsible for clearing by arrest may be performed by patrolmen.
Ex. 6 Translate the following sentences paying attention to Gerund Complex.
Model: Dr. Brown's being arrested was unexpected for everybody.
To, что доктора Брауна арестовали, было неожиданным для всех нас.
1. His being charged with a felony surprised us.
2. Their filing a complaint to the court was quite unexpected.
3. Officer Smith's making a search without a warrant was illegal.
4. My brother's becoming a good investigator resulted from his great experience.
5. The offender's being arrested at the crime scene came as a result of quick police actions.
6. Her being prosecuted for a misdemeanour is natural.
7. His being placed on bail is explained by the nature of his offence.
8. Laws and men who enforce them reflect social systems, so there is no doubt of law being class law and justice being class justice.
9. The person's being fined can be regarded as a just punishment.
10. The policeman's coming late to the crime scene made the investigation difficult.
11. His pleading not guilty does not mean that he is innocent.
12. Their presenting proper evidence to the court proved the guilt of the defendant.
13. The boy’s being accused of petty offenses is not surprising.
14. These crimes are alike in having the same features.
15. Everybody was surprised at his being charged with a crime.
16. The police suspected the man of being an offender.
17. The officer's being very experienced resulted from his twenty years of police work.
18. We were surprised at the penalty being so severe.
19. Everything depends on the charges being filed now.
20. The prevention aspect of police patrol consists in patrol activities being concentrated in high-crime areas.
21. An arrest is legal if there is no doubt of a person's committing a crime.
22. According to the law the magistrate conducting a preliminary hearing is obliged to inform the accused of his having a right to legal counsel.
23. One of the main duties of the police is to prevent delinquents from becoming criminals.
24. Law enforcement agencies are responsible for the laws of the state being observed.
25. The criminal's committing a crime was evident.
26. The patrol action resulted in some suspects being arrested.
Ex. 7. Choose the required form:
1. Corruption-related crimes have a (demoralise, demoralising) effect on society, with public service (being attacked, to be attacked) from within.
2. Alcoholism, drugs and homelessness are known (to be, being) the factors (leading, to lead) to crime.
3. The most typical and dangerous corruption-related crime are known (to include, including) bribe – taking and bribe-giving, theft, embezzlement, or abuse of power or position.
4. If the arrest is made as a result of (to observe, observing) a law violation, an investigation is conducted to determine whether or not a crime was committed.
5. The preliminary hearing is an investigation by a magistrate of the facts and circumstances (surrounding, to surround) a suspect who has been charged with a crime and arrested.
6. In order (to determine, determining) whether there are sufficient reasons for trial; after (to hear, hearing) the evidence the magistrate may (find, finding) no basis for the charges and dismiss them or present the case to the trial court.
7. Mobility has given people the opportunity (to commit, committing) crimes far away from home.
8. A person can cover great distances rapidly, making it very difficult for law enforcement agencies (to operate, operating) effectively.
9. The court ruled that an officer may lawfully search a person in the course of (to make, making) an arrest. However, the police can only immediately search the suspect and the area (surrounding, to surround) the suspect, not an entire room or house, without a search warrant.
10. According to law, the police must (bring, bringing) a suspect before a magistrate within the period of time between 48 and 72 hours.
11. Crime has become not only domestic, but also an external threat (coming, to come) mostly from a rise in terrorist and extremist activity, illigal migration and arms trade.
Ex. 8 Translate into English.
1. Арест должен производиться на основании постановления (ордера).
2. Тяжкое преступление — это преступление, наказуемое смертной казнью или тюремным заключением.
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