The Adjective. Degrees of Comparison 





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The Adjective. Degrees of Comparison



Ex. 1. Give the comparative and superlative degrees of the following adjectives and adverbs

great long rich poor old early easy high rainy sunny famous peaceful difficult beautiful tragic good well bad quickly happily near hard soon far often

Ex. 2. Use the proper degree of comparison in the following sentences.

1. One of (important) Skaryna’s achievements was the translation and pubication of the Bible into the Belarusian language, first in Prague in 1517 – 1519, and later in Vilnya.

2. There were (many/much) noble families in the history of Belarus; however there was no (famous) one than the Radzivills.

3. Barbara Radzivill (1520 – 1551), the Queen of Poland and Duchy of Lithuania, was one of (beautiful) women of her time.

4. The laws of the famous Statute of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were the (perfect) legislation documents in Europe at that time.

5. The third version of the 1588 Statute was considered to be (perfect). It was compiled by (outstanding) politicians of the Middle Ages, Chancellor of the GDL Astafe Valovich and Leu Sapieha.

6. The (good) known Belarusian magnate families were the Radzivills, the Sapiehas, the Halshanskis, etc.

7. Lake Naroch, (big) in the Republic of Belarus, belongs to the Naroch Group, which includes lakes Miastro, second (big), and Botorino.

8. The Belovezhskaya Pushcha is the (large) national park on the territory of Belarus with an area of about 90 thousand hectares.

9. (Important) rivers in Belarus are the Pripuat, the Dnieper, the Nieman, the Berezina and Zapadnaya Dvina as well as the Dniepre-Bug canal.

10. (Considerable) person of the last third of the 19th century was Frantishek Bogushevich, in essence the first people’s and national writer of Belarus.

11. Being funny is much (difficult) than being clever.

12. (Bright) representative of the first half of the 19th century was the Great Polish and Belarusian poet Adam Mitskevich born in the vicinity of Novogrudock.

13. One of (significant) Mitskevich’s literary works oriented to the living language was “Pan Tadeysh”.

Articles

Ex. 3. Use the articles: a/an, the, or nothing.

1. The scientists have not yet exactly defined … origin of … name Belarus.

2. All sorts of … aggressors attacked and occupied Belarus many … time.

3. Francisk Skaryna started … book-printing business in Belarus in … 16th century.

4. … fascists cut down and burnt many Belarusian woods during … years of … World War II.

5. … Belarusian people restored … economy of … republic with … help of all peoples of … former Soviet Union.

6. … Belarusian people celebrated … Independence Day on … 27th of July for some years. Now … holiday is celebrated on … 3d of July.

7. … Belarusian industry produces …tractors and automobiles, … refrigerators and TV sets, … computers and other goods.

8. The Belarusian farmers cultivate … grain, … vegetables, … herbs and … flax.

9. In 1870 I. Nosovic published … first dictionary of … Belarusian language.

10. … Russian and Polish languages have greatly influenced … Belarusian language.

11. A.Lukashenko and B.Yeltsin signed … agreement on all-round integration between Belarus and Russia on April … 2, 1996.

The Verb. Types of Questions

Ex.4. Use to be, to have, there + be in the proper form. Put different types of questions to the following sentences. Work in pairs.

1. There (be) a lot of youth organizations in Belarus. (General)

2. The most numerous youth organizations (be) the Belarusian Patriotic Union of Youth and the Belarusian Union of Youth. (What … )

3. The BPUY (have) the statute of a public union and works in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus. (What organization …)

4. The main goal of this organization (be) to unite patriotically thinking young people for active participation in the construction of a society of justice and progress. (What … )

5. The members of the youth organizations (have) certain rights and duties and can leave the organizations at their own free will. (Disjunctive)

6. There (be) a great many nations existing in the world, and only about 200 of them (have) their own sovereign governments. (Alternative)

7. Belarus (have) enough economic potential and people’s resources to develop its independence and statehood in the new millennium. (Indirect …)

8. Scaryna’s goal (be) “to worship the Lord and to educate common people”. (Whose goal … )

9. Scaryna’s printed Bible (be) the first one among Eastern and Southern Slavs. (General)

10. State independence (be) a necessary foundation for effective national development. (What … )

11. In all times every nation (have) to fight for its independence. (Why …)

12. The heroism of the Belarusian partisans, fighting against the German Nazis in World War II (be) known all over the world. (What … )

13. Symon Budny, the world known philosopher, (be) born in the 16th century, and Nesvizh (be) his native town. (Where …, What …)

Tenses in the Active Voice

Ex. 5. Use the proper form of the verb in the Active Voice.

1. The Polatsk princes (promote) Christianity, and it (bring) knowledge, education and European cultural achievements to our land.

2. The son of Ragnieda, the Prince of Polatsk Uziaslau, (inroduce) literacy and primary education.

3. Prince Usiaslau Charadzei (erect) St. Sophia Cathedral in Polatsk in the 12th century.

4. And now the unique beauty of St. Sophia Cathedral (attract) people from all over the world.

5. F. Skaryna (make) a considerable contribution to Renaissance culture.

6. F. Skaryna (translate) the Bible into Belarusian and first (print) it in Prague in 1517 – 1519.

7. Returning home, Skaryna (found) a printing house in Vilnya in 1520, and (print) A small travelling book and Apostle there.

8. In the XVIth – the beginning of the XVIIth centuries a broad system of school education (grow) on the territory of present day Belarus.

9. The first institution of higher education, Vilnya Academy, (start) its work in 1579, and famous scientists from all over Europe (teach) there.

10. The Belarusians at that time (become) students of Polish, German, French, Italian and English universities.

11. In the Middle Ages our country (enjoy) the influence of both the Slavic and the European cultures.

12. Our land always (be) rich in literary talents whose names (become) famous in many countries of the world.

13. During the last years Belarus and Russia (do) a lot to promote integration.

14. Belarus never (be) in isolation from the world community.

15. According to the UN projections, fuel and energy resources (continue) to be in high demand in the 21st century.

16. Systematic reforms (bring) changes to the lives of Belarusians, and (open) the country to the outside world.

17. Russians and Belarusians (share) common ethnic, cultural and linguistic roots for centuries.

18. At present both countries (implement) the Union Agreement moving forwards a liberal federation.

19. Being one of the states that (make) a great contribution to the defeat of the Nazis invaders, Belarus (become) one of the founders of the UN in 1945.

20. Europe rapidly (move) towards integration.

Modal Verbs

Ex. 6. Choose and use the proper Modal Verb

1. It is a well-known fact that in the 19th century a lot of outstanding people of Belarus (have to, must, may, can) leave their native land because of the political situation.

2. Adam Mitskevich and Ignat Dameika took an active part in the revolt of 1830, but when it was put down they (can, may, must, have to) go to Paris.

3. Some outstanding Belarussian people (couldn't, mustn't, might not) live and work in their homeland.

4. Belarussian people (can, may, must) be proud of their famous countryman Ignat Dameika, who (had to, must, could, should) live in Chile for 46 years and died in Santiago in 1889.

5. Dameika (be able to, could, must, might) make a great contribution to different branches of human knowledge: mineralogy, physics, chemistry, geography, botany, pedagogy and zoology.

6. Speaking of Dameika we (shouldn't, mustn't, can't) forget that he discovered rich deposits of silver and copper, wrote 130 scientific works which were translated into French, Russian, German, English, but not in Belarusian.

7. One (can, must, may, should) find Dameika town and a mountain-range named after him in Chile.

8. In Santiago you (can, must, may) see Dameika's museum and they instituted a medal in his honour.

9. Only in 1884 Dameika (be able to, could, must, need) visit his native land, Medvedka village not far from Mir where he was born in 1802.

10. At the beginning of the 20th century a new trend of abstract painting developed in Vitebsk, The names of M. Shagal, K. Malevich, G. Pen (can, may, should) be mentioned in this connection.

11. When talking about Vitebsk, one (can’t, mustn’t, shouldn’t) but mention the names of these artists.

12. Some of the artists also(could, should, must, had to) leave Belarus and live abroad.

13. The graphic artist (have to, may, must) represent all the beauty of the surrounding world with the help of two colours only: black and white, paper being the white background.


Text B. Read the text and get ready to discuss the main points.

The President

The President of the Republic of Belarus is the Head of State, the guarantor of the Constitution of the Republic of Belarus and of the human and civil rights and freedoms. The President embodies the unity of the people, guarantees the implementation of the main lines of the home and foreign policies. The President represents the Republic of Belarus in its relations with other States and international organisations. The President takes measures to protect the sovereignty of the Republic of Belarus, its national security and territorial integrity, ensures political and economic stability, continuity and interaction between the government authorities.

The Fundamental Law of the Republic of Belarus establishes the requirements to the candidate for Presidency; citizenship of the Republic of Belarus, not younger than 35 years of age, having the right to vote, and having permanent residence in the Republic of Belarus for at least ten years (before the elections).

In conformance with the Constitution the President of the Republic of Belarus fulfils the following duties:

- appoints National referenda;

- appoints regular and extraordinary elections into the Chamber of Representatives, Council of the Republic and local representative bodies;

- dismisses the Chambers in cases and in the order envisaged by the Constitution;

- reforms, abolishes and reorganises the Administration of the President of the Republic of Belarus, other bodies of state management;

- upon the consent of the Chamber of Representatives, appoints to the post the Prime Minister;

- determines the structure of the Government of the Republic of Belarus, appoints and dismisses Deputy Prime-Ministers, Ministers and other members of the Government, takes decisions to dismiss the Government or its members;

- upon the consent of the Council of the Republic, appoints the Chairman of the Constitutional Court, Chairman of the Supreme Court, and Chairman of the Supreme Economic Court;

- upon the consent of the Council of the Republic, appoints judges of the Supreme Court, judges of the Supreme Economic Court, Chairman of the Central Committee on Elections and National Referenda, the General Prosecutor, the Chairman and members of the Board of the National Bank;

- appoints 6 members of the Constitutional Court, and other judges of the Republic of Belarus;

- dismisses the Chairman and judges of the Constitutional Court, Chairman and judges of the Supreme Court, the Chairman and judges of the Supreme Economic Court, the Chairman and members of the Central Committee on Elections and National Referenda, the General Prosecutor, the Chairman and members of the Board of the National Bank on the grounds envisaged by the law with notification of the Council of the Republic;

- appoints and dismisses Chairman of the Committee on State Control;

- addresses his messages to the people of the Republic of Belarus on the situation in the State and on the main lines of home and foreign policies;

- addresses his messages to Parliament which will be listened to with no discussion at the sittings of the Chamber of Representatives and the Council of the Republic; has the right to participate in the work of Parliament and its bodies, to make speeches or convey messages to them at any moment;

- decides on applications on granting citizenship of the Republic of Belarus and granting refuge;

- establishes state holidays, grants state awards, assigns class ranks and titles;

- grants pardon to convicted persons;

- negotiates and signs international treaties, appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of the Republic of Belarus in foreign countries and international organisations;

- The President is entitled to introduce the state of emergency on the territory of the Republic of Belarus or in selected regions in case of a calamity, catastrophe, as well as disorders accompanied with violence or threat of violence from a group of persons and organisations as a result of which a threat arises to lives and health of people, to territorial integrity and existence of the State with a subsequent submission of the decision within three days for approval by the Council of the Republic;

- signs laws, has the right in the order stipulated by the Constitution to return the bill or certain provisions;

- has the right to cancel the acts of the Government;

- directly or through the bodies created by him controls observation of the legislation by local bodies of management and self-management; has the right to suspend decisions of local Councils of deputies and managing bodies in case they do not correspond to the legislation;

- is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces of the Republic of Belarus;

- introduces on the territory of the Republic of Belarus, in case of a military threat or invasion, the martial law, announces total or partial mobilisation with a subsequent submission of the decision within three days for approval by the Council of the Republic;

- performs other duties imposed on him by the Constitution and law.

The first President of the Republic of Belarus is A. G. Lukashenko, elected to this post in 1994. The President, on the basis of and in agreement with the Constitution, issues Decrees and Directions binding on the whole territory of the Republic of Belarus. In cases stipulated by the Constitution the President issues Decrees having the power of law. The President directly or through the bodies created by him provides execution of Decrees, Edicts and Directions.

Points for discussion:

1. The Head of State.

2. The requirements to the candidate for the presidency.

3. The duties of the President of the Republic of Belarus.

4. The first President of the Republic of Belarus.

Text C. Read the text and make up the plan for retelling it.





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