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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Types of questions. Degrees of comparison. Articles.
Ex. 4. a) Use the proper form of the verbs; b) Put the questions to the following sentences.
1. The word chocolate, which (come) from (the, a, -) Aztec language is (a, the, -) only Aztec word in (the, -, a,) English. (Disjunctive question)
2. (-, A, The) first person who (bring) chocolate to Europe (be) Cortes, who (be) an explorer. (Who...?)
3. Henri Nestle, who was Swiss, (develop) the process of making (a, the,-) milk chocolate. (What...?)
4. This week the police (arrest) a couple in (the, -, a) Switzerland, where they (try) to sell chocolate secrets. (Where...?)
5. (The, -, a) people in (the, -, an/a) Britain (spend) 98p (a, the, -) week (on , for, at) chocolate except in Scotland, where they (spend) (much). (How much... ?)
6. Chocolate, which contains (a, the, -) special chemical, (make) us feel as if we (fall) in love. (General question)
7. (The,- A) champagne is one of (much) expensive drinks in the world. It (come) from France. (Alternative question)
8. The Brazilians (export) (much) coffee in the world. They (produce) (a, the, -) million tons a year. (Indirect question)
9. The avocado pear (contain) (much) calories of (any, some, every) fruit. It (have) (much) protein than milk. (What, How much)
10. (The, -, An) Incas (discover) popcorn. They (live) in (-, the, a) South America in (a, the, -) fifteenth century. (When, Who)
11. As we (queue) at the passport control, a group of soldiers (surround) us. (Who, When)
12. While I (stay) with the English family I learnt some English. (Where, What)
13. She (do) her shopping when he first (meet) her. Six months (late, later, latest) they (get) married and since that time they (live) together. They are (happy) family I (ever, meet). (When, What, General)
14. (The, A, -) tea, which (grow) in India and China, (be) the national drink (of, off, at) Britain. (What, Where, Whose)
15. Mrs. Geen (wait) for the doctor for half an hour. When he (examine) the boy, he said, "(The, A, -) child must stay in (a, the, -) bed (as, just, until) he (get) (good)." (How long, Why, Who)
16. Hijackers (still, hold) twenty passengers in a plane at (a, the, -) Manchester airport. (How many, Where, Who)
17. The hostages (now, sit) in the plane without food or water for two days. (How long, Where, Indirect)
18. I think that people (be, only) (interested/interesting) in news which (happen) near them or which (affect) them (economical/ economically). (What?)
19. There (be) too (much/ many) news about people and personalities and not (many, enough, quite) about (the, - , a) politics and current affairs. (Indirect)
20. I (send) the invitation already. I hope I (receive) the reply as soon as they (get) it. (Who, When)
Ex. 5 Put the necessary prepositions: of, off, to, by, on, with, in, from.
Limitations on the Lords
Limitations … the power … the Lords reveal … the fact that most Government bills introduced and passed … the Lords pass through the Commons without difficulty, but if a Lords bill were unacceptable … the Commons it would generally not become law. The Lords, … the other hand, do not generally prevent a bill insisted upon … the Commons … becoming law, though they will often amend and return it … the Commons … further consideration. … convention the Lords pass bills … taxation or national expenditure without amendment. (Under the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1945, a 'money' bill that deals only … taxation or expenditure must become law within one month of being sent to the Lords, whether or not they agree … it). If no agreement is reached between the two Houses … a non-financial Commons bill the Lords can delay the bill … two sessions, or roughly one year.
The Lords' role today is believed … many to act as a chamber … revision, complementing rather than rivalling the elected House.
Ex. 6. Translate into English.
1. Палата общин играет ведущую роль в деятельности парламента.
2. С 1949 года за палатой лордов сохранялось лишь так называемое право отлагательного вето – право отсрочки принятого палатой общин законопроекта, в то время как раньше палата лордов могла отвергать любые законопроекты, одобренные нижней палатой парламента.
3. Высшая исполнительная власть в стране возложена на кабинет министров, который осуществляет разработку национальной политики во всех сферах.
4. Премьер-министром по традиции становится лидер партии, получившей большинство мест в палате общин, и утвержденный королевой.
5. Конституция Соединенного Королевства – неписаная. Она не содержится, в отличие от конституций других стран, в каком-либо одном документе, а основана на многочисленных законах, на общем праве и обычаях.
6. Как и любой другой монарх в условиях конституционной монархии, Елизавета II «царствует, но не управляет».
7. За королевой сохранено право созывать и распускать парламент, назначать премьер-министра, подписывать договоры и объявлять войну, назначать высших военачальников, судей, епископов, только королева может пожаловать дворянский титул.
8. В обширном хозяйстве королевы одна из самых роскошных коллекций почтовых марок в мире, широкое собрание антиквариата, картин и драгоценностей.
9. Елизавета II не вправе даже отдать какой-нибудь карьеристке собственную шляпку. Все разонравившиеся она обязана сдать в специальный музей ее головных уборов. Там шляпку кладут за стекло, снабжают надписью, когда и где королева в ней появлялась, прикрепляют соответствующую фотографию.
10. Специфическим институтом британской общественно-политической жизни являются клубы. «Клубный принцип» - неотъемлемая черта тайного механизма власти. Британия, как подчеркивают сами англичане, управляется через разветвленную сеть личных контактов и связей. Клубы признаны опосредствовать эти контакты и связи. В настоящее время в стране функционируют несколько десятков клубов.
11. Английский клуб – учреждение уникальное. Он напоминает гостиницу закрытого типа. Член клуба может провести здесь по желанию несколько дней, недель, месяцев. При клубе существует ресторан, библиотека, рабочие кабинеты, жилые номера. Женщины в клубы, как правило не допускаются. К числу наиболее знаменитых клубов относятся: «Карл-тон» (клуб консерваторов), «Сент-Джеймс» (клуб дипломатов) и т.д.
Text B.Read and translate the text. Get ready to discuss the main points given below.
The United Kingdom is one of the six constitutional monarchies within Europe (the other five being Belgium, Denmark, the Netherlands, Norway and Spain). Britain's monarchy is the oldest, dating back to the 9th century. It existed four centuries before Parliament and three centuries before the law courts. The present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is directly descended from Saxon king Egbert, who united England under his rule in 829.
The full royal title in Britain is Queen, «Elizabeth the Second, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith» The title reflects the union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland with Ireland in 1801 and the emergence of the Commonwealth.
The present royal family belonged to the House of Saxe-Cobtirg and Gotha until 1917 when, in the light of the First World War, it was considered more appropriate for theKing to have an English rather than a German name. It was therefore proclaimed that Queen Victoria's descendants in the male line would adopt the name Windsor. In 1952 Queen Elizabeth II declared that she and her children should be known as the House and the Family of Windsor.
The Queen’s duties. The Queen personifies the State in law. She is the head of the executive and of the judiciary, an integral part of the legislature, the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the 'supreme governor' of the established Church of England. As a result of a long process of evolution, especially since 1689, the monarchy's absolute powers have been progressively reduced, the Queen today is only a formal ruler and does not actually govern: nowadays monarchs reign but do not rule.
The constitutional and legal doctrine declares that the Queen can do nothing wrong. In practice this has come to mean that the Queen does not act independently. Whatever she does must be done on the advice of a Minister; and that Minister is politically responsible for the royal act.
Though Britain is actually governed by Her Majesty's Government, it would be wrong to underestimate the role of the monarchy in Britain. The official and state duties of the Queen are numerous. The Queen's involvement is still required in many important acts of government. It is the Queen who summons, prorogues (suspends until the next session) and dissolves Parliament. She normally opens each session with a speech from the throne, which outlines her Government's programme. Before a bill that has passed all its stages in both Houses of Parliament becomes a law it must receive the Royal Assent.
It is the Queen's duty to make appointments of many important office holders, including government ministers, judges, officers in the armed forces, governors, diplomats, bishops and other senior clergy of the Church of England. She also confers all peerages, knighthoods and other honours. While the Queen normally does all this on the direction of the government, there are a few honours conferred on her personal selection — the Order of the Garter, the Order of the Thistle, the Order of the Merit and the Royal Victorian Order.
The Order of the Garter was created in the fourteenth century by King Edward III. He selected the twenty-four bravest soldiers in England and made them knights of 'The Order of the Carter'. These days most knights of the Garter aren't soldiers - they are politicians, earls or church leaders. The Order's home is at Windsor. Each year all the knights meet there on a Monday in June. Then they walk (watched by thousands of visitors and tourists) from the Castle to St George's Chapel where a special ceremony takes place, in fact the garter ceremony always happens on the Monday of 'Ascot Week', a famous horse-racing event.
An important function of the Queen is appointing the Prime Minister, but when doing so she is bound to invite the leader of the political party, which commands a majority in the House of Commons to form a government.
In international affairs the Queen, as the head of the state, has the power to declare war and make peace, to recognise foreign states and governments, to conclude treaties and to annex or cede territories.
The ambassadorial role of the Queen and the other members of the royal family is very important. On average, Britain's top ten 'royals', spend one month per year on official foreign tours. When visiting the other countries of the Commonwealth, the Queen is usually accompanied by the Duke of Edinburgh. Other members of the royal family also pay official visits overseas, sometimes representing the Queen or often in connection with an organisation with which they are associated. Their presence at scientilic, artistic, industrial and charitable events attracts considerable interest. They arealso closely involved in the work of many charities especially as presidents or patrons. The Duke of Edinburgh, for example, being particularly interested in science and technology, the environment and overpopulation, is Patron of the Industrial Society and International President of the Worldwide Fund for Nature. Prince Charles is associated as president or patron, with more than 200 organisations; Princess Ann, among her many patronages and presidencies, is head or 'Chancellor' of London University and President of the Save the Children Fund. On behalf of all these she has undertaken extensive tours of Africa, the Middle East, South Asia and South America.
For advice on such matters the Queen has her own Privy Council. In earlier times it was a body of advisers of English monarchs and was the chief source of executive power in the State. As the system of Cabinet government developed, the Privy Council declined in importance. The present-day Privy Council exists mainly to give effect to policy decisions made elsewhere. The Privy Council consists of members of the royal family, the Archbishops and all senior ministers and ex-ministers, together with others to whom membership has been given as an honour. There are about 300 of them altogether.
The Queen is also active in the smooth working of government: apart from holding meetings of the Privy Council, she gives audiences to her ministers and other officials in Britain and overseas, reads dispatches and signs numerous state papers, these arrive in special 'red boxes'. Some are new laws that need her 'assent'. Others are reports, documents or telegrams from ambassadors. This is an important part of the Queen's job. She is not a political leader, but she has 'the right to be consulted, the right to encourage and the right to warn'. That is also why the Queen is visited by the Prime Minister every Tuesday evening to receive an account of Cabinet decisions, as she must be informed and consulted on every aspect of national life. Since 1952 the Queen has given audience, as it is called, to ten Prime Ministers and her forty years' experience gives importance to those meetings.
Points for discussion:
1. Hereditary succession (monarchy passes from one member of the family to another).
2. The Queen presents the main government policies.
3. The Royal Prerogative is the same today as it was many years ago.
4. 4.The monarch’s consent is required before the Cabinet can be formed.
5. 5.’The Queen reigns but does not rule.’
6. 6.The monarch may not be present at Privy Council meetings.
Text C.Read the text and make up the plan for discussing.
The maximum legal life of the House of Commons is five years and the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister may dissolve it before the end of this term. The Prime Minister is bound to do this if his Ministry is defeated on an important issue by the vote of the House of Commons. Nowadays, though, when the electorate often votes for a particular party leader rather than the party itself, government leaders try to use the power of dissolving Parliament and hold elections at moments of the highest popularity, as, for example, Mrs. Thatcher did after her victory in the Falklands War.
When it has been decided to hold a General Election,the old Parliament is dissolved and 20 clear days must elapse before the new Parliament meets. A notice, or writ, has to be sent to each constituency, where the Returning Officer makes provisions for the holding of the election.
For electoral purposes the whole of the United Kingdom is divided into 659 electoral constituencies. Each constituency usually contains about 66,000 voters and returns one member to the House of Commons. To ensure that constituencies electorates are kept roughly equal, four permanent Parliamentary Boundary Commissions, one each for England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, keep constituencies under review.
General elections for parliamentary seats are by secret ballot. British citizens, together with citizens of other Commonwealth countries and citizens of the Irish Republic resident in Britain, may vote provided they are at least 18 years old, are registered in the annual register of electors for the constituency and are not subject to any disqualifications. People not entitled to vote include the Royal Family; members of the House of Lords; mentally ill people, convicted prisoners still in prison; and person convicted within the previous five years of corrupt or illegal practices.
People vote for any one of the candidates in the constituency in which they are registered. Each elector normally casts one vote in person, at a polling station. He or she will make a cross on a ballot paper next to the name of the candidate for whom the vote is cast, fold the paper and drop it folded through the slot in the ballot box. But there are always people who are not able to vote in person, e.g. the sick or physically incapacitated, members of the armed forces or Crown servants employed overseas. These people may apply for and become entitled to an absent vote — a vote by post or a vote by proxy (authorising another person to cast a vote). Certain voting rights also exist for expatriate Britons.
The candidate that obtains the largest number of voices in a constituency, irrespective of whether he or she has an overall majority, is returned as MP for that area. The other candidates, even if they come close to the winner, will not get a seat in Parliament and their votes are «wasted». This system is known as the simple majority, or the «first-past-the post». If there are more than two candidates in a constituency (which is usually the case), the MP, who is elected, represents very often a minority of the electorate. In practice it means that a government can be elected with a minority of the popular vote and is able to carry out its policies because it has achieved a majority of the seats in the House of Commons. This system also means that a party can obtain a considerable number of votes nationally but have very few MPs in the Commons, because these votes are distributed evenly among the various constituencies and thus wasted.
There is no voting in Britain by proportional representation (PR), except for local elections in Northern Ireland.
British citizens may stand and be elected as MPs provided they are over 21 and are not subject to any disqualifications. Among those disqualified are undercharged bankrupts; people sentenced to more than one year's imprisonment; clergy of the Church of England, the Church of Scotland and Roman Catholic Church; peers, and holders of certain offices like civil servants, some local government officers, members of the regular armed forces or the police service.
A candidate's nomination for election must be signed by two electors who net as proposer and seconder, and by eight other electors registered in the constituency. He or she, in theory, does not require any party backing in order to stand for election, but the practice today shows that no independent candidates succeed in being elected. A candidate must also pay a deposit (currently £500), which is lost if his or her votes do not exceed 5% of those validly cast.
In recent years the national election campaign, fought between the party leaders, has become more and more important and less importance is attached to the local campaign. One of the best known local activities still in existence is «canvassing», i.e. supporters of a candidate go from door to door arguing and persuading the residents to cast their votes for the candidate they represent. Expenditure by individual candidates and their agents is limited by law, but long-term expenditure is unlimited.
There have been many debates about the British electoral system. Many see it as unfair, because this system prevents numerically smaller parties from being represented in Parliament, and campaigns continue for the introduction of some form of proportional representation, which would create a wider selection of parties in the House of Commons and could cater for minority political interests.
Text D. Read the text and ask questions on it to be discussed in class
Political Party System
The electoral system in Britain depends much upon the political party system, which has existed in the country since the 17th century. Organised political parties present their policies in the form of manifestos to the electorate for consideration during the intensive few weeks of campaigning before General Election Day. A party candidate in a constituency is elected to Parliament on a combination of election manifesto, the personality of the candidate and the attraction of the party. It should be noted, though, that party activity is not limited by the election period itself but continues as the politicians battle for power and the ears of the electorate.
For the last 250 years a predominantly two-party system has operated in Britain. Until 1918 it were the Conservatives (still known by their previous nickname, the 'Tories') and Liberals (the party which traces its origins to the 18th century ‘Whigs’) that took turns at holding power. Since 1945 either the Conservative Party or the Labour Party has held power.
The Conservative Party
The Conservative Party was formed by Robert Peel from what was left of the old Tory Party in the 1830s. Peel and his successor Benjamin Disraeli (the first Conservative Prime Minister) together shaped modern Conservatism. Originally the party of church, aristocracy and landed gentry, it has always been the party of the Right, identified with the idea of economic freedom and the existing social order. The Party gives emphasis to the importance of law and order, and the maintenance of strong armed forces to protect British interests. Today as in the 19th century, it appeals to a 'property-owning' democracy and is supported by wealthier classes, large business, a sizeable percentage of skilled and unskilled workers, and women who always vote Conservative. The Party is strong in southern England (the counties with traditional Conservative support arc called 'the Shires'); and it is in Scotland that the Conservatives have suffered serious setbacks.
The party is highly disciplined, and its leader is accepted as the director of its policies. The party's Central Office is responsible to the leader. The MPs are expected to observe discipline and to vote with the party.
Outside Parliament the party has more than a million individual members who pay annual subscriptions, with an association for each constituency. The most important function of an association is to choose the party's candidate for the next election, and then to keep in close touch with him as an MP if he is elected.
The National Union of Conservative Associations is the partner, in London, of the Central Office, on which it may exert pressure. Each autumn a few representatives of each local association go, with the MPs and national leaders, to a four-day conference at a seaside town. There each section of (the nation's business is debated for an hour or two and then voted on, usually by a show of hands with a conclusion supportive of the national leadership.
The most dedicated Tories welcomed the privatisation of nationalised industries, the sale of council houses and the rhetoric of the state's withdrawal from direction of the economy. They would be critical of an MP showing weakness on these matters (they call it «wetness»). At the 1997 General Election the Conservative Party suffered a defeat, getting its lowest 30.7% of votes and only 165 seats in the Commons.
The Labour Party
The Labour Party was founded by James Keir Hardie in 1892 at the Trades Union Congress as a result of the movement for independent political working class representation in Parliament. It has traditionally gathered its support from the trade unions, the working class and some middle-class backing.
The Labour Party is less disciplined but possibly more democratic, with more open disagreements between the leadership and other party members. Labour is pre-eminently the party of social justice, though its emphasis is less on equality than on the achievement of well being and opportunity for all members of society. It tends to put the collective well being of society above individual freedom, in the economic sphere at any rate. Traditionally it has been committed to public ownership of major industries, and to economic planning. The trade union movement, which founded the Labour Party, remains influential in the evolution of the party policy.
Labour's annual conference is the supreme policy-making body of the party, and the parliamentary leaders are expected to follow its general policies when in power or in opposition. At each conference the unions and other sections of the party elect their twenty-eight representatives on the National Executive Committee (NEC), which makes decisions week by week. The NEC includes the leader and, usually, several ministers or shadow ministers (when in opposition).
As has been mentioned, the form of the Labour Party's annual conference reflects the origins of the party as the political arm of the trade unions. Most of the union members are affiliated through the union to the Labour Party. The union pays part of each member's subscription to the party, which derives most of its funds from this source. Each union sends a delegation to the party's annual conference, and at each vote its delegates usually vote together as a single «bloc». The number of votes cast by a union depends on the number of its members who have been affiliated to the party. But usually the union's vote is decided in advance by the small number of union officers who comprise its executive body.
As well as trade unions, the party also has other affiliated organisations, notably co-operative societies, which also send delegates to the conference.
People may also join their constituency Labour Parties, each of which sends delegates to the annual conference, and each local delegation casts its votes, usually as a bloc, on the basis of decisions made at local party meetings. The individual party membership was estimated at about 300,000 in the 1980s.
The Labour Party's electoral strongholds have traditionally been in the old industrial areas of south Wales, Scotland and in the Midland and northern English industrial cities. In recent years the Labour party has reviewed its policies in order to broaden its appeal to wider masses and has taken into account changing economic and social conditions to remain a major force in British politics.
The Liberal Party
Before 1918 there had never been a centre party on the British political scene. With the formation of the new Labour Party, a party of the Left, first a small ally of the Liberal Party and eventually the main alternative to the Conservatives, there appeared a chance for the Liberal Party as a centre party. But after a disastrous division of the Liberals between the wars and the second split in 1931, the party seemed to have ceased any effective existence.
In the 1960s, however, growing dislike for both major parties helped Liberals to win some by-elections, and these local successes inspired a vigorous revival.
At the elections of 1974 Liberals received a fifth of the votes cast, though only a dozen MPs were elected. In 1977—78, when the Labour government lost its overall majority in the Commons, the Liberals gave support to the government, which consulted them in forming its policies. In the period of this «Lib-Lab» pact support for the Liberals, as shown by opinion polls, declined to 5%, but then rose again between 10 and 15% until 1981.
The Social Democratic Party
In 1981 a second centre party was created, the Social Democratic Party. It was inspired by Roy Jenkins, a former Labour moderate. Many people, including academics, who had not previously been active in party politics, soon joined the new party.
The Social Democrats and Liberals quickly formed an alliance of the centre, and at the end of 1981 had much more public support, than either the Conservative Government or the Labour Opposition. The two parties prepared an agreed statement of their policy, and each constituency had one Alliance candidate for Parliament, either a Liberal or a Social Democrat. At the 1983 election the Alliance received almost as many votes as Labour. However, the Alliance's support was not concentrated in some areas, but widely spread, its success was frustrated by the electoral system. In the next four years the Alliance had many successes in elections to local councils and in by-elections for Parliament, but failed to make a sustained advance.
The united party, called SLDP (Social and Liberal Democrats), since 1989 known as the Liberal Democrats, now remains as the only serious party of the centre.
The Green Party, who campaigns chiefly on environmental issues, was slower to develop than the Greens in some other European countries but the number of votes it had rapidly increased. By 1989 the Green Party had attracted more people ready to work actively for it, and to give it money. At the election for the European Parliament it had candidates for all the seats in Great Britain.
It had many successes in elections to local councils, and even gained a seat in Parliament at a by-election; in 1992 general election it increased its support up to 17.8% of votes and had 20 seats in Parliament. In 1997 the party got 16.8% of votes and now has 48 seats in the Commons.
There are about half a dozen other parties represented in the House of Commons, mainly regionally based in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, Among most prominent are two nationalistic parties: the Scottish National Party (founded in 1934) with 6 MPs now in Parliament and Plaid Cymru or the Welsh National Party (founded in 1925) that has 4 MPs. In Northern Ireland there compete the pro-Catholic nationalistic party of Sinn Fein (a political wing of the IRA) with 2 seats now in the Commons and Ulster Unionist Party, which is strongly Protestant. Their aims are ranging up to the extreme of complete independence.
1. The United Kingdom is a Constitutional monarchy.
2. The functions of Parliament.
3. Meeting of Parlament
4. The British government is based on the Cabinet principle.
5. The Queen’s duties.
6. The advantages and disadvantages of the UK electoral system.
7. A two-party system has operated in Britain.
a) Елизавета II и принц Филипп
Ее первое появление на публике произошло на балконе Букингемского дворца. Ей тогда был год и два месяца. В два с половиной года она начинает учиться верховой езде – на пони, полученном в подарок к Рождеству. И вообще детство Лилибет, как ее тогда ласково называли домашние, проходимо в атмосфере нежности и заботы. Ее одевали в исключительно солнечно-желтые наряды. Жила она большую часть года в маленьком коттедже на территории Виндзорского замка – он был подарен ее родителям ее дедушкой Георгом V.
Образование? Немного математики, час в неделю – история, час – грамматика, полчаса – география плюс литература. Любимыми занятиями были танцы и рисование.
Когда Лилибет исполнилось 13 лет, она вместе с сестрой Маргарет (младше ее на четыре года) отправилась в круиз на яхте родителей. В Дартмуте была остановка. Девочки играли в саду в крокет. Там же оказался, наблюдая за их игрой молодой красивый юноша. Он учился в королевском морском колледже. Звали его Филипп. Это был девятнадцатилетний греческий принц.
Филипп немного поиграл с девочками, а потом предложил им более увлекательное занятие – прыгать через теннисную сетку. Впрочем довольно скоро он потерял к девочкам интерес. Однако было уже поздно – Елизавета влюбилась.
Тем временем при английском дворе одна за другой возникали сложные проблемы, а подчас происходили даже трагические события.
Ее отец умер по официальной версии от пневмонии. Лишь много лет спустя стало известно, что у него заядлого курильщика, был рак легких. Чтобы облегчить страдания больного, ему дали смертельную дозу усыпляющего лекарства. Истинную причину смерти ее отца от нее, как и ото всех скрывали. Елизавета тяжело переживала утрату, но горе открывало для нее дверь в историю.
В ноябре 1947 года состоялась их свадьба. Лилибет добилась своего. Она была счастлива и очень любила своего Филиппа, которому был пожалован титул герцога Эдинбургского. Одиннадцать месяцев спустя у них родился сын Чарлз, а еще через два года – дочь Анна.
Коронация Елизаветы II состоялась 2 июня 1953 года. За три недели до церемонии коронации Елизавета, чтобы чувствовать себя уверено в королевском одеянии, стала носить корону постоянно, не снимая ее даже во время утреннего завтрака.
Оставались считанные минуты, когда ее еще можно было, как когда-то называть Лилибет. И вот она стала «ваше величество»… Ее муж первым из поэтов преклонил перед ней колено в знак выражения верноподданнических чувств.
В этот день в рапорте лондонской полиции отмечалось необычайно низкое число карманных краж, хотя улицы были полны народа. Сам Черчиль заявил, что восшествие на престол Елизаветы II было актом национального объединения. Чего, увы, нельзя сказать о ее собственной семье.
С годами, когда дети Елизаветы и Филиппа подрасли, пришли в дом раздоры из-за неудачных браков принцев и похождений внучек. Неприятности и осложнения следовали чередой. И хотя это их, казалось бы, частное дело, публика хотела знать все о личной жизни наследника престола принца Чарльза и его супруги Дианы, принцессы Уэльской. Но это уже совсем другая история…
Шотландия обладает административной автономией. Кабинет министров Шотландии осуществляет (за исключением ряда случаев) разработку и проведение в жизнь политики в области сельского хозяйства, рыболовства, образования, законности и правопорядка, местного управления, здравоохранения, жилищного строительства, развития и охраны окружающей среды, охраны памятников старины, ряда транспортных проблем, а также в области социальной жизни.
Министр по делам Шотландии, который является членом кабинета министров Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии, играет важную роль в планировании и развитии экономики Шотландии (финансовая помощь промышленности региона, развитие энергетики).
Центральные ведомства Соединенного Королевства, в чью компетентность входит и территория Шотландии, имеют здесь свои региональные представительства, которые функционируют в тесном контакте с Управлением по делам Шотландии.
Министр по делам Северной Ирландии, член кабинета министров Соединенного Королевства Великобритании и Северной Ирландии, реализует функцию руководства регионом через Управление по делам Северной Ирландии (вопросы конституционного развития, законности и права, безопасности и выборов). Под прямым его контролем действует шесть служб. Управления по делам Северной Ирландии: по сельскому хозяйству, экономическому развитию, окружающей среде, образованию, финансам, социальному обеспечению и здравоохранению.
Некоторые аспекты социальной и экономической жизни Уэльса курируются Управлением по делам Уэльса.
State Structure of the USA
Subject of study:
Texts: A. The Constitution of the USA
C. The Senate
D. The House of Representatives
E. Department of Justice
F. Political Parties
The Passive Voice
The Sequence of Tenses
Notes to the texts:
Text A. Read and translate the text. Do the exercises given bellow.
The Constitution of the USA
A constitution may be defined, as the system or body of fundamental principles according to which a nation or state is constituted and governed. A good example of a written constitution in this sense is the Constitution of the United States, formed in 1787. It is a relatively brief document of some 12 pages. The Constitution of the United States is the source of government authority and the fundamental law of the land. For over 200 years it has guided the evolution of governmental institutions and has provided the basis for political stability, individual freedom, economic growth and social progress.
The Constitutional Convention which was to adopt a new constitution, officially opened on May 25, 1787, in Philadelphia. The 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution included most of the outstanding leaders, or Founding Fathers, of the new nation. George Washington, the military hero of the War of Independence, was the presiding officer. In the course of the Convention the delegates created a new form of government for the United States. The Constitution set up a federal system with a strong central government. A federal system is one in which power is shared between a central authority and its constituent parts (states), with some rights reserved to each.
The United States became federated (a Federal State) because, after the War of Independence, the 13 states then in existence were too weak individually to carry on the work of government. They joined together as equals for the common convenience. Though they gave certain powers to the Federal Government, each state preserved its own independence by reserving to itself certain well-defined powers (education, taxes and finance, internal communications, etc.). The powers which are usually given to a Federal Government are those dealing with national defence, foreign policy, the control of international trade, etc.
Under the Constitution power was further divided among the three. branches of the national government: legislative (Congress), executive (the President) and judicial (the Supreme Court). Each was given its own authority.
These three powers established a so-called system of the checks and balances. This system gives each branch the means to restrain the other two. For example, the President has the power to veto acts passed by Congress, but Congress may override the veto by a two-thirds majority. But the Supreme Court has the power to declare Acts of Congress (or of any State legislature) or the actions of a President to be illegal (or unconstitutional) if they are in conflict with the Constitution.
The Constitution provided the election of a national leader, or president. In 1789 George Washington was unanimously elected the first President of the United States. It provided also that federal laws would be made only by a Congress consisting of representatives elected by the people. The Constitution set up a national court. system headed by a Supreme Court. 'This fundamental document provided the most clear example of a practical separation of the three principal branches of power.
When the Constitution was written in 1787, there were only 13 states. The drafters of the Constitution saw that the future might bring a need for changes, that is why they provided a method of adding amendments. Over the past 200 years 26 amendments have been adopted, but the basic document, the Constitution itself, has not been changed. The pattern of government planned so long ago for 13 states, today meets the need of 50 states and 60 times as many people.
But when the Constitution was first proposed and adopted, there was widespread dissatisfaction of the American people, because it did not contain guarantees of certain basic freedoms and individual rights. It also recognised slavery and did not establish universal suffrage.
Only several years later, in 1791, under the strong popular pressure, Congress was forced to adopt the first 10 amendments to the Constitution dealing with civil liberties. They were called collectively the "Bill of Rights". From these amendments the Americans received guarantees of such basic rights as freedom of speech, the press and religion, the right of peaceful assembly, freedom from unreasonable search, arrest and seizure. The Bill of Rights also deals with the system of justice: it requires that "no one shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law", and that "no person shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself". Meanwhile, slavery was abolished many years later, by the thirteenth amendment (1865), and universal suffrage was guaranteed by the fifteenth amendment (1870).
Since the Bill of Rights was adopted 16 other amendments have been added to the Constitution. But the political system created by the Constitution and the Bill of Rights is basically the same today as it was in 1790.
Adopted in 1787, the Constitution was finally ratified and came into force on March 4, 1789.
Under the Constitution, no member of one branch of government may be a member of either of the two others. The President of the United States is not and cannot be, a member of Congress (the legislative branch). Any member of Congress who wishes to become President of the United States must resign from that body before accepting the Presidency (Gerald Ford resigned from Congress in 1975 on becoming President). At the same time the President may or may not be, a member of the political party with a majority in Congress. No member of the Government (the executive branch) with the exception of the Vice-President (who presides over the Senate) may also be a member of Congress.
Congress is empowered by the Constitution to remove government officials, including the President, from office, only by an impeachment process. Impeachment is a charge of misconduct brought against a government official or President by a legislative body.
Though many people contributed to writing the Constitution, three men played the leading roles, George Washington, James Madison and Alexander Hamilton. Washington's participation was the most important. His popularity as the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, as the general who led the fight for independence, was great, and his character inspired confidence. Madison and Hamilton manifested much of the energy and practical political imagination needed for constitutional reform. The truly decisive intellectual work was done by Madison. His influence and arguments were everywhere: in the Convention debates, in the compromises, in the very language of the Constitution. Thus, James Madison, the fourth American President, who formulated the basic provisions of the Constitution, is regarded as the father of the Constitution.
Each state has its own Constitution. The State Constitutions have a similar structure with the Constitution of the United States. As a rule they include the preamble, the Bill of Rights, as well as provisions dealing with local interests: the division of powers, suffrage and elections, taxes and finance, education, etc. The federal government of the United States is divided into three main branches: the executive, the legislative, and the judicial.
Ex. 1. Read the international words and guess their meaning. Mind the stress.
Ex. 2. Complete the list of derivatives. Use a dictionary if necessary.
Ex. 3. Pair the words in column A with the ones from column B.
Ex. 4. <
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