Procurator's Office. Committee of State Control



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Procurator's Office. Committee of State Control



The Procurator's Office of the Republic of Belarus is an integrated and centralised system of bodies headed by Procurator General. It performs control over the exact and uniform execution of the laws, decrees, resolutions and other standard enactments by ministries and other bodies subordinated to the Council of Ministers, local representative and executive bodies, enterprises, organisations and institutions, public associations, officials and citizens. It also monitors the abidance by the law in investigating crimes, correspondence to the law of court judgements on civil, criminal cases and cases of administrative offences.

The Fundamental Law establishes the right of the Procurator's Office, in cases stipulated by the law, to carry out preliminary investigation and support state prosecution in court.

The competence, organisation and procedure of activity of the Procurator's Office bodies are determined by the legislation.

State control over the execution of the Republic's budget, the utilisation of state property, and the execution of the decrees of President, Parliament, the Government and other state bodies which regulate the state property relations, the economic, financial and tax relations in conformance with the Constitution is exercised by the Committee of State Control formed by the President.

A unified budget and financial, tax, monetary and credit and hard currency policy is pursued on the territory of the Republic of Belarus. The state budget system includes the national and local budgets. The budget revenues come from taxes determined by the law, other mandatory payments and other revenues.

Text F. Read and translate the text. Prepare the summary of the text in writing. Use the plan and word combinations given below.

External Policy of the Republic of Belarus

History

The proclaiming of Belarusian independence on March 25, 1918 played a decisive role both in the activity of the People's Republic of Belarus in acquiring its international recognition and in the policy of Bolsheviks on the creation of the Belarusian SSR.

At the first stage of the BSSR existence (1919-1922), its external policy was pursued within the framework of a diplomatic union of the Soviet republics united around the RSFSR. The BSSR government delegated to the RSFSR the right to conduct negotiations on its behalf with Poland and to delineate the borders of Belarus. Pursuant to the Riga peace treaty concluded in 1921, Western Belarus was transferred to Poland. Despite requests for recognition, Belarus was only recognised by the RSFSR and other Soviet republics, as well as Poland and Germany. It maintained de-facto relations with Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Turkey and Italy.

After joining the USSR, the BSSR external policy authority was, in fact, terminated, and the external policy department was liquidated. The ethnic Belarusian lands (Vilno and Bialostock regions and other territories) were transferred to Lithuania and Poland in the 1940s without the consent of the BSSR supreme bodies of authority.

In 1944 the Soviet leadership returned the external policy powers to the Soviet republics with the view of getting a "multiple representation" of the USSR on the international arena. Belarus and Ukraine became the UN founding members.

The Republic had its representative office in the UN in New York, in international organisations in Vienna, Geneva and Paris, consulates of Poland and the GDR were located in Minsk. The great majority of international agreements signed by Belarus within the UN framework had a multilateral character.

A new period of external activity of Belarus began after proclaiming independence in 1991.

In conformance with the Declaration of State Independence, the statements on the liquidation of the USSR and foundation of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Supreme Soviet and the Government of the Republic of Belarus declared their intention to build an independent State and pursue an independent external and internal policy. The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus adopted in 1994 established the obligation of the State to proceed in its external policy from the universally recognised principles and norms of international law which were given priority over the national legislation. Belarus was declared neutral State and a nuclear-free zone.

Since June 15, 1999, the Republic of Belarus has been recognised by 137 countries, diplomatic relations have been established with 124 of them. There are 29 embassies, 2 general consulates, 9 offices of international organisations, the Executive Committee and Economic Court of the CIS.

In 1992 Belarus joined the Organisation on Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and the Council of North Atlantic Co-operation, in 1993 obtained the special guest status in the Council of Europe.

The contribution of Belarus into strengthening international security in the sphere of nuclear disarmament and arms control deserves special attention. The army was reduced from 160 thousand to 80 thousand, the number of tanks, aircraft, guns and military machinery was significantly reduced.

In 1992, tactical nuclear armament was withdrawn from the Republic. In 1996 the strategic nuclear arms were withdrawn from the country, and it became a de-facto non-nuclear State.

In 1990 Belarus put forward an initiative to create a non-nuclear zone in Central Europe. In 1996 this proposal was modified in connection with the NATO expansion to the East.

Despite the fact that Belarusian lands remained on the territory of neighbouring States, the Government of the Republic of Belarus declared that it had no territorial claims to them. Political treaties and treaties which establish the territorial status quo have been signed with Russia, Ukraine, Poland, Latvia and Lithuania.

In 1995 the Belarus-Russia Treaty on Friendship, Good-neighbourly Relations and Co-operation was signed and a Customs Union was founded, which was acceded by Kazakhstan and Kyrghyzstan in 1996, and Tajikistan in 1999. In 1996 Belarus and Russia concluded the Treaty of founding a Commonwealth, in 1997 it was transformed into a Union. In December 1998 Presidents A.G. Lukashenko and B.N. Yeltsin made a joint declaration on their intention to create an integral Union State.

Being in the centre of Europe, Belarus intends to take an active part in pan-European integration processes. The development of political and economic relations between West Europe and Belarus objectively meets the interests of all, especially of the states bordering Belarus.

Belarus strives for a comprehensive development of relations with the EU, which in future could realise free trade and other forms of interaction adequate to the interests of the parties.

A unanimous adoption of the Republic of Belarus as a full member of the non-aligned countries, participation of Belarus in such elected bodies as the Economic and Social Councils and the Executive Council of the UN Development Programme (UNDP) testifies to the authority: acquired by Belarus in the international community.

 

The plan for rendering the text/article Some phrases to be used while rendering the text
1. The title of the text/article The title of the text is…
2. The author of the text (story, article) The author of the text is … The text is written by …
3. The main idea of the text/article The main idea of the text is … The text is about … The text is devoted to … The text deals with …
4. The contents of the text/article (some facts, names, figures) a) The author starts telling the readers (about/ that) … b) The author writes (states, stresses, thinks, points out) that … The text describes … The main character(s) of the text is (are) … c) According to the text … Further the author says that … The text goes on to say … d) In conclusion … The author comes to the conclusion that …

Summing up

Speak on:

The Constitution of the Republic of Belarus

The President

Parliament

The Government

Judicial Power

External Policy of the Republic of Belarus

Revision Translation

1. С объявлением государственной независимости (27 июля 1990 года) Беларусь столкнулась с необходимостью определить форму своего государственного и общественного строя, основы своей внешней и внутренней политики.

2. Существовала необходимость выработать национальную, государственную идеологию страны.

3. Государственная идеология – это обязательный атрибут любой независимой страны, своего рода духовная конституция.

4. Государственная идеология объединяет граждан и государственные структуры.

5. Конституция Республики Беларусь закрепляет основы государственной идеологии.

6. Наука о государстве и праве тесно связана с социально-политическим устройством, законодательством страны, развитием правовых идей в обществе, общим уровнем правовой культуры народа.

7. Значительным достижением белорусских ученых-юристов явилось издание «Юрыдычнага энцыклапедычнага слоўніка” в 1992 году.

8. Это было первое белорусское издание, в котором были даны основные правовые понятия и современная белорусская правовая терминология, основные принципы и источники права, важнейшие законодательные акты и их изменения.

9. Основными принципами, которые активизировали развитие исследований в области государства и права были выход Беларуси на международную арену и частичная демократизация общественно-политической жизни.

10. В стране значительное развитие получили исследования в области государственного и международного права.

11. Известно, что отсутствие демократических свобод в стране, строгий контроль со стороны власти за общественно-политической жизнью, как правило, являются причиной распространения апатии и безразличия к политике и идеологии, правового нигилизма.

12. Начиная с 1990-х годов, наша страна прошла через такие изменения, каких хватило бы на сотни лет.

13. В стране была принята новая Конституция, отменена руководящая роль КПСС, возникли различные формы собственности, избран первый Президент, образован Конституционный Суд, и было объявлено о строительстве демократического, социально-правового государства.


UNIT II



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