The State System of the Russian Federation

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The State System of the Russian Federation

A. Hi, Dima! You have come at last. Glad to see you.

B. Hi, Max! Glad to see you too.

A. Have you prepared for your History classes?

B. Yes, I have. We should have prepared texts about the state system of the Russian Federation.

A. You are absolutely right. But I was busy yesterday and didn't manage to prepare the material. Will you be so kind as to tell me about it in brief?

B. Certainly. Don't worry. It is not too complex. Hope, that you do know who is at the head of our country.

A. Naturally. The President, who is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He also appoints ministers in the government.

B. That's fine. Do you know what branches the federal government consists of?

A. I wish I knew.

B. You see, the federal government includes three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislative power is realized by the Federal Assembly, which consists of two chambers: the Upper Chamber, The Council of Federation, and the Lower Chamber, the State Duma. The executive power belongs...

A. Oh, sorry for interrupting you. I do know about it. It belongs to the Government, which is headed by the Prime Minister.

B. Good for you. And the judicial power is represented by the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court, and the regional courts. That's all.

A. I don't know how to thank you.

B. Not at all. It was a real pleasure for me to do it.

Задание 2.Что особенного в географическом положении России? Заполните пропуски в предложениях географическими названиями

the Barents the Urals the Kara the Azov the Baikal the Ladoga the Amur the Baltic Sea the White Sea the Great Russian Plain the Western Siberian Plain East Siberian the Onega the Volga the Ob the Lena the Sea of Japan the Bering Sea the Arctic Ocean the Black Sea the Okhotsk Sea the Yenisei the North Dvina Mount Elbrus the Chuckchee the Laptev the Caspian the Caucasus Moscow Magadan

Russia is washed in the north by _______ and its seas: _______, _______, _______, _______, _______ and _______, in the south by _______, _______ and _______ Seas; in the east by _______, _______ and _______; in the west by _______. The size of Russia is hard to imagine. A flight from _______ to _______ takes eight hours. Russia is a land of long rivers and large lakes. Among the world’s longest rivers rank _______, three mighty Siberian rivers: _______, _______ and _______, and _______. The largest of all Russia’s rivers is _______. The three largest lakes in Russia are _______ in South-Eastern Siberia and _______ and _______ in Northern Russia. The relief of Russia is mostly flat. It’s located on two plains: _______ and _______. There are three main mountain ranges in Russia. _______ stretches from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. The highest mountain is _______. _______ extend from the Arctic Ocean to the steppes. They divide the European and Asian parts of Russia.


Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы, опираясь на текст«The Russian Federation» 1 уровня

1. Is Russia the largest country in the world?

2. What is the size of Russia?

3. What oceans wash the borders of the Russian Federa­tion?

4. How many countries have borders with Russia?

5. Are Russian flora and fauna various?

6. What are the main rivers of Russia?

7. What are the highest mountains in Russia?

8. What is Baikal famous for?

9. What are the natural resources of Russia?

10. What is the climate in Russia like?

11. What is the national symbol of Russia?

12. What does the Federal Assembly consist of?

13. Who is the head of each Chamber of the Federal Assembly?

Задание 2. Перескажите текст


I live in Russia. Russia is my native country. The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world, occupies one seventh of the Earth's surface. It is situated both in Europe and Asia. The total area is about 17 million square kilometers. The country is washed by 12 seas and 3 oceans: the Pacific, the Arctic and the Atlantic oceans. Our neighbours in the south are China, Mongolia, Korea, Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan. In the west we have borders with Norway, Finland, Belarus the Ukraine. There is no country in the world like Russia, with the steppes in the south, plains and forests the midland, tundra and taiga in the north, highlands and deserts in the east. There is a great number of rive in Russia. The Volga, the longest in Europe river, flow into the Caspian Sea. The main Siberian Rivers — the Yenisey and the Lena flow from the south to the north! The Amur in the Far East flows into the Pacific осеan. The deepest lake in the world is Baikal. The water in the lake is so clear, that you can see the stones on the bottom.

Because of the vast territory there are various types of climate in the country.

Russia is very rich in oil, coal, iron ore, natural gas, copper, nickel and other mineral resources.

Russia is a parliamentary republic with the stroll power of the President who is the head of the state. State Duma and the Council of Federation are the legis­lative branch of the government.

The capital of Russia is Moscow. It is the largest po­litical, cultural and industrial centre. It is one of the oldest Russian cities.

The national banner of Russia is a tricolour with white, blue and red stripes.


Задание 1. Переведите предложения с русского языка на английский

1. Общая площадь Российской Федерации составляет более 17 миллионов километров.

2. В мире нет стран с такой разнообразной флорой и фауной.

3. Озеро Байкал — самое глубокое озеро на земном шаре.

4. На территории Российской Федерации 11 часовых поясов.

5. Россия является конституционной республикой, с президентом во главе.

6. Законодательная власть принадлежит Федеральному Собранию, состоящему из двух палат.

7. Президент контролирует только исполнительную ветвь власти.

Задание 2. Викторина «Как хорошо ты знаешь Родину?»

Ответьте на вопросы

What is (are)?

- the biggest lake on the territory of Russia?

- the longest Russian river (in European and Asian parts of the Russian Federation)?

- a city with subtropical climate?

- cities with arctic climate?

- agricultural regions?

- old historical cities?

- places of recreation and tourism?


The United States of America


Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст


The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world (after Russia, Canada and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and a half million square kilometers. The USA borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a sea-boarder with Russia.

America was discovered by Columbus in 1492 but he thought it was the coast of India. A few years later another traveller named Amerigo Vespucci proved that it was not India but an unknown continent. In 1506 this continent was named America in honour of Amerigo.

The original inhabitants of North America were the Indians. Being driven from their lands they have settled in the so-called reservations situated in the west.

The country may be divided into 5 parts: the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plain, the Appalachian Highlands, the Interior Plain, the prairie that lies to the west of the Mississippi and the Cordilleran or Western Highland and the Pacific Slope including the Pacific Valley and the Coastal Ranges.

The United States has thousands of lakes of all kinds and sizes. The Great Lakes make up the largest group of lakes in the country, as well as the greatest collection of fresh-water lakes in the world. But only Lake Michigan lies entirely inside the US. The greatest fall is Niagara Falls.

The USA has one of the longest rivers in the world – the Mississippi River. It’s main tributaries are the Missouri and Ohio Rivers. The rivers in the west are unsuitable for navigation. The largest among them, Columbia and Colorado rivers flow through deep canyons. Being cut but rapids these rivers serve as an immense source of electric power.

The USA has different climatic regions: continental, subtropical desert climate and others. Large reserves of coal, oil, gas, iron, copper, form a solid base for the development of the US industry.

The capital of the United States is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. This area is not a state and is not in fact a municipality, but Federal Land.

The White House (1600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW) has been the official residence of every American President except G. Washington. The original design of the “President’s House” was drawn by James Hoban, an Irish-born architect. Burnt by the British in 1814 it was restored and painted white and thus got its current name.

The United States is a federal union of 50 states, each of which has its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, DC. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the. President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the judicial. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.

There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic.


Задание 1. Прочитайте тест, к каждому абзацу подберите наиболее подходящий заголовок

a) The National Symbols b) The USA Territory c) The Natural Resources d) The Population e) The Surface of the Country f) 50 States with the President at the Head

1. The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world in area. It covers a large territory of about 9,400,000 square kilometers in the central and southern part of North America, extending from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. It also includes Alaska in the northwestern part of North America and Hawaii far out in the Pacific Ocean. The United States of America borders Canada in the north and Mexico in the south. The United States is often called the US, the USA, or America.

2. One can't describe the country without mentioning its surface. The USA can be divided into three main regions: the Appalachians in the east, the plain in the central part, the Cordilleras including the Rocky Mountains, Sierra Nevada, and the dry Californian Valley between them in the west. Many rivers are flowing through the country, such as the swiftest Columbia and Colorado, the longest Mississippi with its main tributaries the Missouri and the Ohio. The northeastern part of the USA comprises the region of the five Great Lakes (Superior, Huron, Michigan, Erie, and Ontario) connected by natural channels which are cut by rapids (the greatest one — the Niagara Falls).

3. The USA is rich in natural resources. It has vast areas of fertile soil, an abundant water supply, and large areas of forests. There are also large deposits of minerals, such as coal, iron ore, natural gas, etc.

4. The United States is the third largest country in the world in population (about 250 million people). About 94 per cent of the people were born in the United States. The largest foreign-born groups are Mexicans, Germans, Canadians, Italians, British, and Cubans. The US has never had an official language, but English has always been the main language spoken in the country. Emigrants from the British Isles, including the nation's founders, spoke English. Spanish is the second most common language in the USA.

5. The US consists of 50 states and the District of Columbia. The Dis­trict of Columbia is a piece of land set aside by the federal government for the nation's capital, Washington, D.C. The United States has a federal system of government with the President at the head.

6. The national symbols of the USA include the American flag and the Great Seal. There are 50 stars on the American flag symbolizing 50 states of the USA, and 13 stripes representing 13 original states. On the one side of the Great Seal, there is an eagle holding an olive branch and arrows, which are symbolizing a desire for peace and the ability to wage a war. On the reverse side, there is the Eye of Providence, representing God, and a pyramid dated 1776.

Задание 2. Ответьте на вопросы

1. What is the size of the USA? 2. What oceans is the USA washed by? 3. What are the neighbouring countries of the USA? 4. What are the main rivers of the USA? 5. What are the highest mountains in the USA? 6. What are the natural resources of the USA? 7. What is the capital? 8. What river is the capital located on? 9. Who is at the head of the country? 10. What are the national symbols of the USA? 11. What is the climate in the USA like? 12. Describe the political system of the USA. 13. What are the main political parties in the USA?


Задание 1. Подготовьте реферат на тему.

Варианты тем

1.The discovery of America 2.The political system of America 3.Свободная тема
4.The great American Presidents 5.The great people of America  


The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland


Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Great Britain is situated on the British Isles which are to the north-west of Europe. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain and Ireland, and about five thousand small islands.

Britain, formally known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, comprises England, Wales, Scotland and the northern part of Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh and Belfast respectively. The capital of the UK is London.

The British Isles are separated from the European continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea.

The United Kingdom's area is some 244,000 square km, of which 99% is land and the remainder is inland water. With over 57 million people Great Britain ranks about fourteenth in the world in terms of population. The high density of population sets up a problem of land use and resources. The problems of supporting such a large population on such a small land area are obvious. In fact, this became possible when Great Britain emerged as the world first industrial nation during the 18th and early 19th century. It was during that period that Britain acquired vast overseas colonial territories extensively explored. This enabled Great Britain to become the wealthiest nation in the world.

The surface of the British Isles varies very much. The north of Scotland is mountainous and is called the Highlands, while the south, which has beautiful valleys and plains, is called the Lowlands. The north and west of England are mountainous, but all the rest — east, centre and south-east — is a vast plain. Mountains are not very high. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain (1343m).

There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important one.

The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.

Задание 2. Соотнесите русские и британские пословицы

1. East or West - home is best 2. So many countries so many customs. 3. Every country has its customs. 4. When at Rome, do as the Romans do. 5. Dry bread at home is better than roast meat abroad. a) В чужой монастырь со своим уставом не ходят. b) В гостях хорошо, а дома лучше. c) Сухой хлеб дома лучше, чем жареное мясо за границей. d) Сколько стран, столько и обычаев. e) У каждой страны свои обычаи.


Задание 1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы


The British Commonwealth

The Commonwealth or the British Commonwealth is an organization of about 50 independent states which were formerly parts of the British Empire, established to encourage trade and friendly relations among its members: Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Kenya, Jamaica and other Commonwealth countries.

The Gulf Stream is a current of warm water, which flows north-eastward in the Atlantic Ocean from the Gulf of Mexico towards Europe. It is thought that the Gulf Stream keeps Britain much warmer than it would be otherwise. The climate of Britain is more or less the same as that of the north-western part of the European mainland. There is a saying that Britain doesn’t have a climate, it only has weather. It may not rain very much, altogether, but you can never be sure of a dry day; there can be cool, even cold days in July and some quite warm days in January.

British people are often thought to be reserved and quiet. They are also thought to accept bad luck or unpleasant events without appearing upset. British people are considered to use understatements.

The United Kingdom is one of the few countries where a constitutional monarchy has survived with its ages-old customs and traditions. There is no written constitution. It was formed partly by common law and partly by conventions.

Being a constitutional monarch, the Queen does not make any major political decisions. In Britain, they look to the Queen not only as their head of the state, but also as the symbol of their nation’s unity. The Queen has retained many important, though formal, functions. In particular, she appoints every important office holder, including the Prime Minister.

The British Parliament is the main law-making body consisting of both the elected representatives of the people (the House of Commons) and the House of Lords. When people talk about Parliament they often talk only about the House of Commons.

The House of Commons is the larger and more powerful of the two parts of the British Parliament, the members of which are elected by citizens over 18 years of age. Each member represents people in a particular area and is their MP. The British House of Commons has 650 members. MPs serve for five years. When a new law is introduced, it is passed first in the House of Commons, and then sent to the House of Lords to be discussed and approved. Finally, it must be approved by the Queen and given the royal assent.

The members of the House of Lords are not elected but have positions because of their rank or titles of honour. Members of the House of Lords include Lords, Bishops and life peers.

The flag of the United Kingdom, known as the Union Jack8, is made up of three crosses. The upright red cross is the cross of St. George, the patron saint of England. The white diagonal cross is the cross of St. Andrew, the patron saint of Scotland. The red diagonal cross is the cross of St. Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland.


1. What is the full formal title of the country? 2. Where is the country situated? 3. What parts does Great Britain include? 4. How large is the country? What is its territory? 5. What is its population? 6. What is the climate of the British Isles modified by? What sort of climate is there on the British Isles? 7. What kind of state is a constitutional monarchy? 8. When was the first British parliament summoned? 9. What is peculiar about the British Constitution? 10. Who is the head of state in Great Britain? 11. What is the British Parliament like nowadays?

Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант.

1. Great Britain consists of … parts. a) the three b) three c) twice
2. It is washed by the waters of.... a) an Atlantic Ocean b) Atlantic Ocean c) The Atlantic Ocean
3. The Queen of Great Britain is not.... a) the absolute b) absolute c) аn absolute
4. ... is the main modem art museum.   a) Tate Gallery b) A Tate Gallery c) The Tate Gallery
5. ... drive on the left-hand side in their country. a) The British b) British c) A British


Задание 1. Сравните политические системы Великобритании, США и России.

  Great Britain the USA Russia
Political System      
The head of state      
The legislative branch      
The executive branch      
The head of the executive      
Guaranteed basic rights      

Задание 2. Ответьте на вопросы и заполните таблицу.

Questions Russia The UK The USA
1. What is the total area?      
2. How many people live there?      
3. What is the official language?      
4. What are the main natural resources?      
5. What river is the longest?      
6. What lake is the largest?      
7. What is the capital?      
8. What river is the capital located on?      
9. Who is at the head of the country?      
10. What chambers (Houses) does the Parliament (Congress) of the country consist of?      


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