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Влияние общества на человека
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Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
ОПОРНЫЙ КОНСПЕКТ МОДУЛЬНОМУ БЛОКУ № 8
ОБУЧАЮЩИЙ МОДУЛЬ 8.1
1. Лексика по теме
2.Глагол to take
Глагол часто используется в следующих значениях:
ОБУЧАЮЩИЙ МОДУЛЬ 8.2
Лексика по теме
ОПОРНЫЙ КОНСПЕКТ ПО МОДУЛЬНОМУ БЛОКУ №9
“countries. national symbols”
Лексика по теме
2. Глагол to get с предлогами
Лексика по теме.
2.Глаголы с предлогами
Многие английские глаголы меняют свое значение, когда к ним добавляется предлог, поэтому необходимо запоминать их перевод.
2.1 Глагол to come
2.2 Глагол to go
Не путайте два глагола: to go и to come!
2.3 Глагол to give
2.4 Глаголы to leave и to forget
Лексика по теме
МОДУЛЬНЫЙ БЛОК №1
“The person and his living conditions”
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите текст, обратите внимание на слова, выделенные курсивом, постарайтесь запомнить их
My Friend Sandra
I think the first thing that people notice about my friend Sandra is her bright appearance. She has marvelous dark hair and pale skin. This combination makes her very attractive. She has very beautiful features such as a straight nose, a determined chin and rosy checks. Sandra really enjoys taking care of her appearance, that's why she always looks her best! She's not very tall, but has got a slender figure, and a very narrow waist. As she goes in for sports, she is always in a perfect physical state.
What I appreciate most in her is the ability to communicate with other people. She's very friendly and cheerful. You will hardly ever be bored with her, as she is a very broad-minded and sophisticated person. She is almost never afraid to say something wrong, to make a mistake. It's always very interesting to listen to her, because she gives witty comments. She's one of those people who stand their ground. Sandra adores fashion and has perfect taste in clothes. She also loves experiments with different styles. I'm very proud that I know her.
Задание 2. Прочитайте текст, обратите внимание на подчеркнутые слова и выражения
Our family is neither big nor small. It consists of my father, my mother, my brother, and me. My father, a tall man with dark short hair, is 40 years old. He works as a manager at the firm. He likes his work and spends a lot of time there. My mother, a tall and thin woman with big blue eyes and fair hair, is younger than my father, she is 38. My mother is a teacher at the secondary school. She teaches her students foreign languages: German and English. She also spends much time at school, but she finds time to cook, sew, knit, and even to help my brother and me with our homework. My brother is only 10, and he is a schoolboy.
I am 16. I am a student of the college. My college is far from our house, and it takes me half an hour toget there by bus. We are studying different subjects there, but my favourite ones are History and English. As to myappearance, I am slim and slender. My hair is fair, my eyes are blue. I look like my mother. I like to dress in a modern style. Music is my hobby. I am fond of dancing at the disco. I like to read books too. Twice a week I go to the swimming pool.
We live in a three-room flat in a new block of houses. There is a nice green park near our house, where we spend a lot of our free time. There are many different shops not far from our house. My brother and I often go shopping.
Our family is nice, and everybody is easy to get along with. We take care of each other. We spend much time together. Recently, we have bought a car, and now we often go down to the country to have a rest on weekends. In the evening, all members of our family watch TV or discuss everyday problems. Sometimes we go to the theatre or to the concert.
Задание 3. Выучите эту тему наизусть
About My Family
My family is not very big, just a typical family: Dad, Mom, me, my brother, sister and our cat. My Mummy is forty-one, she is a teacher of Spanish at the University. She is a born teacher. She has teaching abilities. My Dad is forty-two, he is a professional painter, he works for a design company. My parents both like their work very much.
My elder sister Natasha is nineteen, she goes to the University, she wants to be a teacher of history. She is fond of reading books on history and fiction.
My younger brother Igor is only six years old, he goes to the kindergarten. He is very funny, I like to spend my free time teaching him something. Igor likes to play with our cat.
My grandparents are retired. They like gardening. They spend a lot of their time in the garden. They grow vegetables and fruits. We enjoy having fresh vegetables and green on our dinner table.
I love my family very much. We always help each other. Everyone in my family is my best friend.
Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы о своей семье
1. How many persons are there in the family?
2. Do you have a brother or a sister?
3. Where do your parents work?
4. Do your parents understand you?
5. In what way do you help your parents?
6. How old are your grandparents?
7. How do you get along with your family?
8. Which of the parents do you want to be like?
Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите отрывок из сценария к фильму «Париж ночью». Ответьте на вопросы
Interior of a flat: Bedroom. Night. Gerald is sitting in bed, reading a novel. He has half-moon glasses on and has a cardigan on over his pajamas. Clara comes in, trying to seem casual, then sits down on the piano stool at the end of the bed. He does not look up.
Clara:I think we should divorce.
Gerald:Oh yes? (Without looking up from his book.) Why?
Clara:It's obvious, isn't it? Neither of us can live in this atmosphere.
Gerald:Really? We always have. (He is apparently mild-mannered. But as soon as Clara speaks, he interrupts.)
Gerald:Oh, yes, I can see it would suit you. I'm an embarrassment. I'm getting old. I've seen you do it to everyone since you were a girl. If they don't shape up, kick 'em out.
Clara:That's not fair.
Gerald:(Suddenly quiet.) I'll fight you for Simon. Oh, yes. In public. In the courts. In the papers. I've got nothing to lose. But you have. I'llget him.
Gerald:I'll say what sort of mother you were. You didn't come home when he was in hospital. (He looks at her) Well, did you? It doesn't look good.
Clara:(Suddenly violent.) What do you want?
Gerald:Very little. (He goes back to his book, with a little smile.) If you've got a man, I would like to know.
1. What is the relationship between Clara and Gerald? 2. Who is Simon? 3. What does Gerald threaten to do if Clara insists on a divorce? 4. Why do you think Gerald has 'nothing to lose' if the case becomes public, while Clara does have something to lose? 5. What evidence would Gerald use against Clara in an attempt to get custody of their son?
Задание 1. Посмотрите на картину американского художника Эдварда Хоппера и ответьте на вопросы
Перед ответом на вопросы обсудите следующие пункты
· The names of the two characters.
· What to write as directions before the scene, including a brief description of the characters and what they are wearing, and how they are sitting.
· Are they arguing?
· Does one of them want something from the other? If so, how do they go about getting it? How will the scene end?
(Don't forget that you can make your characters move, change expression, tone of voice etc. by including instructions in brackets before they speak.)
1. What is the relationship between the man and the woman?
2. Where are they?
3. Why did the artist choose to have the man reading the paper and the woman sitting at the piano?
4. Why aren't the two looking at each other?
5. What time of day or night is it?
6. What has happened?
7. What is going to happen?
8. What is the mood of the picture? Give three adjectives.
Задание 2. Составьте развернутый план рассказа - о своей семье, - о семье друга, - о семье тети.
ОБУЧАЮЩИЙ МОДУЛЬ 1.2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите диалоги, обратите внимание на фразы, выделенные курсивом
1) P. Good evening! Come in, please.
M. We are not late, are we?
T.S. Come in, please, and make yourselves at home. I say, Peter, you may show the flat to the guests.
P. Certainly. There are four rooms in the flat. That room on your left is mine. Would you come in?
P. There is a sofa and a desk in it. Then, there are some chairs. There's one chair at the desk and two chairs on either side of the sofa.
G. What about that room, next to yours?
P. That room is used as a sitting room. There are no beds in it. There are two sofas instead. There is a table and armchairs in the middle of the room. There are no carpets on the walls. But there is a beautiful thick carpet on the floor. And there are nice light curtains on the window. There is a TV set in the left- hand corner.
G. What that room?
P. And this is the room that Bert and Dick share. This is my parent’s bedroom. This is our bathroom. There is a bathtub and a shower in it. But it’s too small for the family like ours.
G. What have you got in your kitchen?
E. Isn’t there a sink in your kitchen?
P. Of course, there is a sink with hot and cold water taps. We have got a gas-stove, a refrigerator and a table in it.
E. Oh, it’s rather late. We must be off.
P. All the best.
G. See you tomorrow.
2) - Where shall we put your bed?
- I think at the wall on the left of the door.
- And a desk?
- In front of the window.
- Let's put bookshelves on the wall on the right of the desk.
- OK. That will be comfortable.
3) - I have to share a room with my sister.
- Do you? I don't. I like my room. There is a sofa, wall units, a comfortable armchair and a TV set. A carpet in front of the sofa makes my room cosy.
(4) - Do you help your Mum about the house?
- Of course, I do.
- What do you usually do?
- I like cooking and washing dishes. But I dislike sewing. And you?
- I can't stand ironing.
- Can't you? I can.
Задание 2. Прочитайте и перескажите текст, обратите внимание на слова, выделенные курсивом
A Modern Flat
My friend’s parents have a new flat on the second floor of a 16 storied block of flats. It has all modern conveniences (gas in the kitchen and central heating everywhere). There are four rooms (a sitting-room, a dining-room, two bedrooms), a kitchen, a toilet, a hall and a bathroom. One room is Pete’s bedroom and another – his parent’s bedroom.
Pete’s bedroom is not large but it is rather cozy and comfortable. It has two windows. The windows face a garden in front of the house. There is a sofa in the room, a bookcase where Pete keeps his books, a desk at which he usually sits and does his homework and a chair.
His parent’s sitting- room is a large room with two windows and two doors. One door is leading to the hall, another to the balcony. There is a sofa in the room. There are also two armchairs, a table, a wall fitment at one of the walls, a TV set in the corner of the room and a bookcase. The nets are white and the curtains are green.
The dining-room is also very nice. There is an extending table in the middle of the room. There are four chairs around the table. At one of the walls there is a cupboard for plates, cups, knives, forks and spoons. A lamp with a nice lampshade hanging from the ceiling above the table makes the room nice and cozy.
Pete’s mother is very proud of her kitchen. There is a gas stove with a kitchen cabinet next to it. There are also several kitchen units, a sink with two taps, a fridge.
In the hall there is a big built-in cupboard where they keep a vacuum-cleaner, bags and other things. There is also a hat and coat rack in the hall.
Задание 1. Что это? Составьте подписи к картинкам и небольшие рассказы, описывающие эти картинки
Задание 2. Прочитайте диалог и ответьте на вопросы
Apartment for rent
Ann: Hello Roger? This is Ann.
Roger: Oh hi, Ann. How have you been? And how's your new apartment working out?
Ann: Well, that's what I'm calling about. You see, I've decided to look for a new place.
Roger: Oh, what's the problem with your place now? I thought you liked the apartment.
Ann: Oh, I do, but it's a little far from campus and the commute is just killing me. Do you think you could help? I thought you might know more about the housing situation near the University.
Roger: Alright. So, what kind of place are you looking for?
Ann:Well, I'd like to share an apartment with one or two roommates within walking distance to school.
Roger: Okay, what's your budget like? I mean how much do you want to spend on rent?
Ann: Uh, somewhere under $200 a month, including utilities, if I could. Oh, and I'd prefer to rent a furnished apartment.
Roger: Hmm. And anything else?
Ann:Yeah, I need a parking space.
Roger: Well, I know there's an apartment complex around the corner that seems to have a few vacancies. I'll drop by there on my way to class today.
Ann: Hey, thanks a lot.
Roger: No problem.
Задание 3. Составьте предложения, соединив две половинки
Задание 4. Поставьте глагол “to be” в нужную форму
1. There … a big grocery on the ground floor and it’s very convenient to do everyday shopping.
2. There … three rooms in our flat: a living room and two bedrooms.
3. There … two pictures above the piano.
4. There … a lovely carpet on the floor between the beds.
5. There … also a writing- table, two chairs and some bookshelves here.
6. There … two beds, a bedside table, some chairs and a wardrobe in it.
7. There … a gas- stove, four stools, a refrigerator and a cupboard in which we keep cups, plates and all our dishes.
8. There … a hall-stand and a mirror on the wall.
9. … there pictures on the wall?
10. ... there a table near the window?
11. … there a comfortable armchair in the room?
12 ... there two or three bedrooms in the house?
Задание 1. Составьте развернутый план рассказа по те “My Flat”
Задание 2. Напишите сообщение по теме “My Home – My Castle”
ОБУЧАЮЩИЙ МОДУЛЬ 1.3
Задание 1. Прочитайте, переведите текст, обратите внимание на слова, выделенные курсивом
The weather in England is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening. And a nasty morning can change to a fine afternoon. That is why it is natural for the English to use the comparison “as changeable as the weather” of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something. “Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather.” This statement is often made by the English to describe the meteorological conditions of their country.
The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long. The weather is the favourite conversational topic in England. When two Englishmen meet, their first words will be “How do you do?” or “How are you?” And after the reply “Very well, thank you; how are you?” the next remark is almost certain to be about the weather! When they go abroad the English often surprise people of other nationalities by this tendency to talk about the weather, a topic of conversation that other people do not find so interesting. The best time of the year in England is spring (of course, it rains in spring too). The two worst months in Britain are January and February. They are cold, damp and unpleasant. The best place in the world then is at home by the big fire. Summer months are rather cold and there can be a lot of rainy days. So most people who look forward to summer holidays, plan to go abroad for the summer, to France or somewhere on the Continent.
The most unpleasant aspect of English weather is fog and smog. This is extremely bad in big cities and especially in London.
Задание 2. Соотнесите правый и левый столбики
Задание 3. Выучите эту тему наизусть
There are four seasons in a year: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Every season is beautiful in its own way.
When spring comes nature awakens from its long winter sleep. The days become longer and the nights become shorter. The ground is covered with green grass and the first flowers. The air is fresh, the sky is blue and cloudless, and the sun shines brightly. The trees are in full blossom. The days are warm and everything is full of life and joy.
Spring is followed by summer. The weather is usually fine in summer, but it can be very hot, especially in July. Sometimes there are storms with thunder and lightning. In summer people try to get away from the city noise and spend more time in the open air. They pick mushrooms and berries in the forest, swim in the rivers and lakes, go fishing and boating. Most people prefer to have their holidays in summer.
Autumn begins in September. The days become shorter and the nights become longer. The leaves turn yellow, red and brown and fall to the ground. Most birds fly away to warm countries. September is called Indian Summer. It is a beautiful time when the sky is cloudless, the trees around is golden, but gradually it gets colder and colder. It often rains in October and November which makes autumn an unpleasant season.
In winter the sun sets early and rises late. The rivers and lakes are frozen over. Everything is covered with snow. Sometimes it is very cold, about 25-30 degrees below zero. Going out in such weather isn't very pleasant. Winter is a good time for sports. People go in for skating and skiing.
As for me, I like all the seasons, but I think there is nothing like late spring.
Задание 1. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту «English Weather»
1) Is the weather in England very changeable?
2) How often does it rain in England?
3) What do Englishmen often say to describe the weather of their country?
4) Englishmen often talk about weather. Do you find topic of conversation interesting?
5) What is the worst time of the year in England? When do Englishmen prefer to stay at home by the fire?
6) How do the English spend their short English summer?
7) What kinds of weather do you like best of all?
8) Which do you like better: when it's cold or hot?
9) What is the weather like today?
10) What is the weather forecast for tomorrow?
11) What is the weather like in your town in winter (summer, autumn, spring)?
Задание 2. Прочитайте, переведите диалог и ответьте на вопросы
1: What a scorcher! This's gotta be the hottest day we've had so far this summer.
2: You can say that again! I've never suffered so much from the heat!
1: This is the kind of weather that makes me want to stay inside and do nothing.
2: I'm so glad we have air conditioning.
1: Me too. I don't know how they stood it in the old days with only fans and shade trees to keep them cool.
2: I guess it took a strong, pioneer spirit.
1: Well, I certainly don't seem to have it!
scorcher - extremely hot day
gotta be - must be (without a doubt)
You can say that again! - I agree!
air conditioning - way of treating and circulating air in a building, room, car, etc. to regulate its temperature or humidity
to stand - to endure
pioneer - person who goes first and prepares the way for others
1. Are the speakers indoors or outdoors?
2. What's the value of air conditioning?
3. What is a pioneer spirit?
4. How did people deal with heat in the old days?
Задание 3. Поставьте глагол “to be” в правильную форму
1) In Scotland it (to be) cold with snow in the mountains tomorrow.
2) In the north of England it (to be) wet day with heavy showers for all day long.
3) The Midlands (to be) dry today but it (to be) cloudy last week.
4) In the south of England it (to be) bright and clear with a lot of sunshine but it (to be) windy in the evening.
Задание 1. Составьте рассказ о временах года, опираясь на следующие вопросы
1. How many seasons are there in a year? 2. When does nature awaken from her long winter sleep? 3. Why do we like spring so much? 4. Why do people try to spend more time in the open air in summer? 5. Is summer the best season for tourism? 6. Where did you go last summer? 7. Do you like Indian summer? Why? 8. Do you like late autumn? 9. What do you usually do on a nasty rainy day? 10. What is the weather like in winter? 11. Do you go in for skating or skiing? 12. Were you fond of playing snowballs and making snowmen when you were a child? 13. Most people prefer summer to any other season of the year. What about you? 14. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each season?
Задание 2. Составьте предложения, используя слова и выражения из правого и левого столбиков
Задание 3. Переведите предложения с русского языка на английский
А) 1.Солнечно. Нет дождя. 2. Холодно. Идет снег. 3. Облачно. Дует холодный ветер. 4. Морозно, но светит солнце. 5. Идет дождь. Туманно. Сыро. 6. На улице идет снег? – Нет, там ясно и ярко светит солнце. 7. Вчера было тепло, хотя и шел мелкий дождь. 8. На прошлых выходных было ясно и светило солнце, но дул сильный ветер. 9. Вчера вечером дул сильный ветер и шел дождь, который перешел в сильный ливень. 10. Сейчас ярко светит солнце и на улице свежо, а еще 5 минут назад дождь шел как из ведра. 11. Пять дней тому назад над городом стоял туман, а теперь от него осталась лишь легкая дымка. 12. Во вторник шел снег. Морозило. 13. Мы можем увидеть радугу, когда одновременно светит солнце и идет дождь. 14. Ливень – это сильный, но короткий дождь. 15. Синоптик может предсказать погоду, используя барометр.
В) Наступила осень. Дни стали короче, много облачных ненастных дней с ливнями. А совсем недавно было тепло и сухо, светило солнце и дни были ясными и солнечными. Мы с друзьями много гуляли в это время. А сейчас я, в основном, дома, т.к. начался новый учебный год, и я снова пойду в колледж. Но хоть осень и ненастное время года, я люблю ее.
Задание 4. Подготовьте устное сообщение по теме «English Weather»
ОБУЧАЮЩИЙ МОДУЛЬ 1.4
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите диалоги, обратите внимание на слова и выражения, выделенные курсивом
A Pizza Place
Mike: Let’s go into this pizza restaurant. I'd like some takeaway pizzas. Hello. Could you show us the menu, please?
Assistant: Here it is.
Mike: Two cheese and tomato pizzas to take away, please.
Assistant: Certainly. They’ll be ready in five minutes. Would you like to take a seat?
Alexander: I’m thirsty. Shall we have a drink?
Mike: One large coke and a pure orange juice, please.
Assistant:Here you are. That’ll be £3.60, please. Thank you very much. Goodbye.
At the Hamburgers Bar
Mike: What shall we have? I usually have a hamburger and large coke. But today I’d like a king size and strawberry milk shake. I’ m very hungry.
Alex: I’ll have the same.
Mike: Hello. Two king size hamburgers and two strawberry milk shakes, please.
Assistant: Anything else?
Alex: Yes. Chips, please. Thank you very much.
Assistant: That’ll be £ 4.60, please.
Задание 2. Прочитайте текст и переведите его, обратите внимание на фразы, выделенные курсивом
An Englishman's day begins when he sits down to breakfast with his morning paper. There is nothing he likes better than his favourite breakfast of cornflakes with milk and sugar, bacon and eggs, toast and marmalade, tea or coffee. It is really a big meal. Round about 11 in the morning some Englishmen, who work have their tea or coffee break. Then at midday, say from 1 till 2, the city pavements are full of people on their way to cafes. This is lunch time in Great Britain. At lunch people seldom eat soup. Those who have lunch at home may eat chicken or clear soup but not always. They usually have a meat course and a sweet dish. Englishmen like steaks, chops, roast-beef, Yorkshire pudding or fish and chips. A meat course is served with plenty of vegetables: peas, beans or cauliflower. They call green cabbage leaves or lettuces "salad" and eat it with the so called "salad-dressing", a mixture of oil, vinegar, salt, pepper and mayonnaise. A sweet dish is perhaps fruit and pudding or a pie with tea to follow.
Afternoon tea can hardly be called a meal. Tea drinking is quite a tradition with the English. 5 o'clock tea is not usually served at the table though Englishmen don't find it convenient. Each person has a cup and a saucer and a spoon in his hands. Strong tea is mostly drunk with sugar and cream or milk. Such tea is known as English tea. Tea with lemon is called Russian tea in England.
The evening meal, when all the family gathers round the table, after their working day, goes under various names: tea, high tea, dinner or supper. It is usually a meat course followed by tinned fruitor cake and tea.
When outing, that is on a picnic, the English load their luncheon baskets with all sorts of hamburgers or sandwiches made of slices of bread and butter with ham, cheese, raw tomatoes, cabbage leaves in between.
On the whole, English cuisine is not the best in theworld. Englishmen prefer just "good plain food".
Задание 3. Переведите с английского языка на русский
An attractive table is a sign of the cook's or the host's pride and respect for you.
1. Be punctual, or the meal may be spoilt.
2. Wash your hands before coming to table.
3. At home, or when you are with friends, offer to help lay or clear the table.
4. Wait for the host or hostess to tell you where to sit.
5. In America, they invite others at the table to "Enjoy". In France, they say, "Bon Appetit". Germans say, "Guten Appetit", and Italians, "Buon Appetite". The British say nothing.
6. Take your napkin and put it on your lap. Keep it there during the meal and use it to wipe your hands or mouth whenever necessary.
7. When there are several pieces of cutlery beside the plate, you start on the outside for the first course.
8. Offer others before you help yourself.
9. Sit up straight and keep your elbows off the table.
Задание 1. Переведите на английский язык слова, данные над сеткой кроссворда, и впишите ответ в соответствующие поля
По горизонтали: 1. каша2. свинина 3. суп 4. цыпленок 5. молоко 6. уксус 7. яблоко 8. апельсин 9. яйцо 10. гарнир
По вертикали: 11. чай12. рыба 13. овощ 14. кофе 15. конфета 16. сыр 17. перец 18. хлеб 19. салат 20. торт