Заглавная страница Избранные статьи Случайная статья Познавательные статьи Новые добавления Обратная связь
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Informal and Formal Education
Education includes different kinds of learning experiences. In its broadest sense we consider education to be the ways in which people learn skills, gain knowledge and understanding about the world and about themselves. One useful scheme for discussing education is to divide these ways of learning into two types: informal and formal.
Informal education involves people in learning during their daily life. For example, children learn their language simply by hearing and by trying to speak themselves. In the same informal manner, they learn to dress themselves, to eat with good manners, to ride a bicycle or to make a telephone call. Education is also informal when people try to get information or to learn skills on their own initiative without a teacher. To do so, they may visit a book shop, library or museum, watch a television show. They do not have to pass tests or exams.
We consider formal education to be the instruction given at different kinds of schools, colleges, universities. In most countries, people enter a system of formal education during their early childhood. In this type of education, the people decide what to teach. The learners study those things with the teachers at the head. Teachers expect learners to come to school regularly and on time, to work at about the same speed as their classmates, and to pass tests and exams. Learners have to pass the exams to show how well they have progressed in their learning. At the end of their learning, learners may earn a diploma, a certificate, or a degree as a mark of their success over the years.
The school system of all modern nations provides both general and vocational education. Most countries also offer special education programs for giftedor for physically or mentally handicapped children. Adult education programmers are provided for people who wish to take up their education after leaving school. Most countries spend a large amount of time and money for formal education of their citizens.
Задание 2. Прочитайте текст и выберите правильные ответы на вопросы
Yesterday we had a very interesting class. We spoke about professions and jobs. I wrote everything about everybody in my notebook because our teacher, Miss Elson, asked me to combine the information and make a report.
Two students are going to be doctors. Three girls want to be models. Four students want to be lawyers. People always need advice about laws. Kate Jinks is going to be an accountant. Her mother is an accountant and works at the bank. Kate thinks she has to do well in computing. Nobody is going to be a litter man, though everybody thinks it is very important to collect litter. No one wants a poorly paid job. Bob Harris is going to be a weatherman. He thinks it's the most important profession nowadays. Weather can bring a lot of trouble. Bob wants to forecast the weather.
Задание 3. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту «Learning Foreign Languages» (1 уровень, задание 1)
1. Why do we need to learn foreign languages now?
2. How many people in the world speak English?
3. What are English-speaking countries?
4. In what areas is English mostly used?
5. What are the difficulties in learning foreign languages?
6. Is the knowledge of English necessary nowadays and why?
Задание 3. Задайте специальные вопросы и ответьте на них, используя модель
a) Model: People gain knowledge about the world. What do people gain?
1. Children learn to ride a bicycle. 2. People get information about themselves. 3. People visit libraries and museums. 4. They often watch a television show. 5. They usually pass tests.
b) Model: Education includes different kinds of learning experiences. What does education include?
1. A student in a technical school takes some general education courses and vocational training. 2. At the end of the learning, a learner earns a diploma. 3. The student passes tests and exams regularly. 4. The school system in different countries provides both general and vocational education. 5. This country spends a large amount of money for formal education.
Задание 4. Перескажите тему
Choosing a Profession
What do you want to be when you grow up? Perhaps, it was difficult for us to give a definite answer earlier. But now we understand that the time to choose our future profession has come.
Finishing school is the beginning of the independent life for you. Many roads are open before us: technical schools, colleges and universities. Today there are thousands of different kinds of jobs, and new ones are constantly appearing. No wonder that it is not an easy thing to make the right choice.
When choosing a future career, we should consider different factors. In my opinion, money is one of the most important factors when you make a choice. I think everybody wants to have a highly paid job and to earn as much as possible. On the other hand, it's good when you get satisfaction from your job. It is very important to choose a profession that suits your interests. It goes without saying that a job should be interesting and socially important.
Задание 1. Воспользуйтесь дополнительным источником информации и ответьте на вопросы.
1. When do children in Russia enter a primary school? 2. How long do they study at the primary school? 3. What kinds of secondary schools are there in Russia? 4. What subjects do pupils study in secondary schools? 5. Is education in Russia free of charge? 6. What are the possible ways to continue education after finishing the secondary school? 7. What are the most well known Universities in Russia?
Задание 2. Составьте вопросы, ответами на которые будут слова, выделенные курсивом. Слова в скобках помогут вам
1. Informal education involves people in learning during their daily life (whom, when). 2. In most countries, people enter a system of formal education during their early childhood (what, when). 3. Learners show how well they have progressed in their learning (what). 4. At the end of their learning, learners earn a diploma, a certificate or a degree (what, when). 5. Most countries offer special education programmers (what).
Задание 3. Несколько студентов из США посетили один из колледжей нашей страны. Переведите речь русских студентов на английский язык
Задание 4. Выпишите из текста “Learning Foreign Languages» (1 уровень, задание 1) сферы использования английского языка
Задание 5. Опираясь на вопросы, составьте рассказ «Роль английского языка в нашей жизни»
1. Why do people learn foreign languages?
2. Do you know any foreign language?
3. Do you like to speak English?
4. How many years did you study English?
5. Is it an easy thing to learn a foreign language?
6. Is it useful to learn foreign language?
7. Does English help you to make friends?
8. What can you say about English language?
Задание 6. Сравните системы образования России, Великобритании и США, заполните таблицу
Задание 7. Подготовьте реферат на тему.
1. Education in Great Britain.
2. Education in the USA.
3. Education in Russia.
ОБУЧАЮЩИЙ МОДУЛЬ 2.1
Время и предлоги времени. Числительные.Present Simple Tense.
Present Continuous Tense
Задание 1. Правильно произнесите следующие цифры
19 568 713, 56 341 973, 12 906 401.
Задание 2. Правильно произнесите следующие даты
1908, 2001, 1467, 1989, 1812.
Задание 3. Правильно запишите адрес
а) ул. Ленина 46 – 12; б) ул. Победы 12 – 68.
Задание 4. Образуйте порядковые числительные
Задание 5. Перепишите фразы, используя цифры
Five point four billion German Marks; one thousand and fifty degrees Celsius; six thousand four hundred and six; twenty nine point zero/"o" one five; five and three quarters; twenty five minutes to six in the evening; a/one hundred million pounds; six meters by eight meters.
Задание 6. Напишите цифрами следующие даты
a) the first of March nineteen seventy-six;
b) the fifth of December two thousand;
c) the sixteenth of May nineteen five;
d) the third of July nineteen hundred;
e) in nineteen ninety-seven;
f) in nineteen hundred eighty-one;
g) in two thousand five.
Задание 7. Измените предложения по образцу
Model: She doesn’t know French. (Russian) — She knows Russian.
1. He doesn't drive a car. (a lorry) 2. She doesn't start her work at 10:00. (9:00) 3. He doesn't drink tea in the morning, (coffee) 4. She doesn't like pears, (apples) 5. She doesn't wear short dresses, (long dresses) 6. He doesn't work quickly, (slowly) 7. She doesn't speak Chinese. (English) 8. She doesn't like classical music, (jazz) 9. He doesn't play basketball, (football) 10. She doesn't live in the suburbs, (the centre of the city)
Задание 8. Образуйте от утвердительных предложений отрицательные и вопросительные. Используйте образец
A)Model: I like bananas. — I do not like bananas. Do you like bananas ?
1. I write letters regularly. I ... not ... letters regularly. ... you... letters regularly? 2. I drive a car. I ... not ... a car .... you ... a car? 3. You sing well. You ... not ... well. ... you ... well? 4. They live in London. They ... not ... in London. ... they... in London?
B)Model: He likes coffee. — He does not like coffee. Does he like coffee?
1. She watches TV every day. She ... not... TV every day. ... she ... TV every day? 2. He often gives her flowers. He ... not often ... her flowers. ... he often ... her flowers? 3. She helps her mother about the house. She ... not... her mother about the house.... she ... her mother about the house? 4. He likes classical music. He ... not ... classical music. ... he ... classical music?
Задание 1. Заполните пропуски предлогами времени
1. The first session ends … about 10 o’clock. 2. I usually get up … 7 o’clock ... the morning. 3. … Monday I have Maths and Technical Drawing classes. 4. The meeting was held … 5 … 7. 5. What’s the time? It’s 5 min. … 7. 6. … a day or two we’ll get to the theatre. 7. My friend was born … 1989 … May. 8. I was having dinner … that time. 9. I haven’t seen him … that time. 10. The banks close … 7 o’clock … the evening. 11. Shakespeare died … 1616. 12. My friend was born …1989 … May. 13. I was having dinner … that time. 14. I haven’t seen him … that time. 15. Various college societies held their meetings ... Tuesdays ... two or three o'clock.
Задание 2. Запишите выражения времени
2 час 35 мин.; 6 час. 00 мин.; 1час. 50 мин.; 5 час. 15 мин.; 6 час. 30 мин.; 3час 57 мин.
Задание 3. Ответьте на вопросы
1. What time is it? 2. When do you get up? 3. How long does it take you to get to the college? 4. When do you usually go to bed? 5. What time is it by your watch? 6. When do your classes begin (end)? 7. What’s your friend’s phone number? 8. What is your telephone number?
Задание 4. Заполните пропуски по образцу
Model: a) We watch TV every day. b) We don't watch TV every day. c) Do you watch TV every day ?
Задание 1. Переведите предложения с русского языка на английский
1. Сейчас ровно 2 часа. 2. Я встаю в 7 часов 10 минут. В половине восьмого я завтракаю. 3. Без пяти минут восемь я выхожу (leave) из дома. 4. Занятия начинаются полдевятого. 5. Я возвращаюсь домой около 4.45. 6. Я ложусь спать около 12 часов. 7. Сейчас 10 минут седьмого. 8. Он позвонит без четверти восемь. 9. Мне необходимо 50 минут, чтобы выполнить эту работу. 10. Встретимся около кинотеатра в 6.15.
Задание 2. Запишите следующие цифры, номера комнат, автобусов, страниц на английском языке
первый, второй, третий, четвертый, пятый, восьмой, девятый, двенадцатый
пятая комната, третий автобус, страница двадцатая.
Задание 3. Напишите даты по-английски
1) 7 марта 1999 года; 2)1 сентября 1974 года; 3) 22 апреля 1911 года; 4) 11 марта 1951 года; 5) 12 декабря 2024 года.
Задание 4. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Present Continuous Tense или в Present Simple Tense
One Sunday Agnes and her mother went to the zoo. Agnes was very excited. She was interested in everything she saw.
"Mother, look," she said. "There (to be) a monkey in this cage. It (to eat) an apple. Now it (to give) a bite to another monkey. I (to think) monkeys (to like) apples very much."
"Yes, dear," said her mother.
"Now I (to want) to go and see the lions and tigers. Where they (to live), mother?"
"In that big house over there. Come along."
Agnes enjoyed herself very much in the lion house. "Mother," she said, "the tiger (to want) a drink: it (to go) to the dish of water there in the corner. And the lion (to look) right at me. You (to think) it (to want) to eat me up? When the lions and tigers (to have) their dinner, mother?"
"The keepers (to bring) them great pieces of meat every day at four o'clock. And they (to make) a big noise before their dinner time, so everybody (to know) they (to be) hungry."
Задание 6. Закончите предложения, поставив глагол из скобок в Present Simple Tense или Present Continuous Tense
1. A: Look, it ………. again. (rain)
B: Yes, it ………. this time ofyear. (rain)
2. Good night, I ………. to bed. I always ………. there during the week, (go, go)
3. Most days, John ……….to work, but since it ………. today he ………. his car to work. So Mary ………. her shopping at the local shop instead of the supermarket where she usually………., (cycle, rain, take, do, go)
4. A: Where are the children?
B: They ………. in the garden. They ………. home from school at about four and usually ………. straight out to play with their friends, (play, get, go)
5. A: What work ……….?
B: He ………. French and German, and this term he ………. English as well, (your husband do, teach, teach)
6. We usually ………. the news on TV at seven o’clock, but tonight we ………. that new soap opera, (watch, watch)
ОБУЧАЮЩИЙ МОДУЛЬ 2.2
Словообразование. Future Simple Tense. To be going to
Задание 1. Прочитайте следующие существительные, укажите, от каких слов они образованы, подчеркните суффиксы
pressure, construction, direction, concentration, collection, necessity, agreement, difference, drawing
Задание 2. Сопоставьте вопросы и краткие ответы
Задание 3. Переведите на английский язык
1. I’m not going to have breakfast this morning. I’m not hungry.
2. What are you going to wear to the party on Saturday?
3. Oh, dear! It is 9 o’clock and I’m not ready. I’m going to be late.
4. Are you going to invite John to your party?
Задание 1. Образуйте новые слова с помощью суффиксов и префиксов, переведите их на русский язык
Задание 2.Поставьте глагол в нужную видовременную форму
Model: Joe wants to be a pilot when he grows up.
1. We always (go) abroad for our holidays. 2. I'm sorry, but I (feel) tired. 3. I just (want) to go to sleep. 4. Washington is the capital of the USA. 5. When you (start) at the university next year? 6. Oh dear, this milk (taste) awful. 7. You (look) really funny in this hat. 8. Give my love to Norman if you (see) him. 9. Do your children (help) you about the house? 10. It's amazing how many people (gather).
Задание 3. Подберите пару предложений по смыслу подходящих друг другу
Задание 4. Напишите, что эти люди собираются делать?
Задание 5. Вы собираетесь делать это завтра?
Задание 6. Прочитайте ситуации и дополните предложения, используя will (‘ll) или going to
Задание 1. Переведите на английский язык, употребляя глаголы в Present Simple или Future Simple
1. Он сделает упражнения по английскому языку, если у него не будет других дел. 2. Если я не помогу ему, он не напишет контрольную работу завтра. 3. Он не пойдет в библиотеку сегодня вечером. 4. Если он не пойдет в библиотеку, он будет дома. 5. Мы будем дома завтра. 6. Если мы будем дома завтра, мы посмотрим эту программу по телевизору. 7. Ее не будет завтра дома. 8. Если ее не будет завтра дома, оставьте ей записку. 9. Завтра погода будет хорошая. 10. Если завтра погода будет хорошая, мы поедем за город. 11. Когда она приходит в школу, она снимает пальто. 12. Когда она придет в школу, она снимет пальто. 13. Как только он вспоминает эту смешную сцену, он начинает смеяться. 14. Как только он вспомнит эту смешную сцену, он начнет смеяться. 15. Я приду домой в шесть часов.
Задание 2. Образуйте вопросительные предложения. Используйте выражение to be going to
1. (what/you/wear/to the party?) ………………………………………………..?
2. (when/you/visit me again?) …………………………………………………..?
3. (what time/Tom/phone you tonight?) ………………………………………...?
4. (how long/your friends/stay here?) …………………………………………...?
5. (what time/you/get up tomorrow?) …………………………………………...?
Задание 3. Дополните предложения.Используйте выражение “to be going to + глагол”
Model: My hair is dirty. I’m going to wash it.
1. I don't want to go home by bus. ………………………………………………..
2. John's university course begins in October. He ……………….… engineering.
3. Take an umbrella with you. It ………………………………………………….
4. I'm hungry. I ……………………………………………….…… this sandwich.
5. It's Val's birthday next week. We ………………………….…… her a present.
6. I feel tired. I ……………………………………………….… down for an hour.
МОДУЛЬНЫЙ БЛОК № 3
“MY NATIVE PLACES AND THE TOWN”
ОБУЧАЮЩИЙ МОДУЛЬ 3.1
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите тексты со словарем
The Urals or Ural Mountains are the heart of Eurasia. This is where Eastern Europe and Northern Asia are connected and divided by a chain of mountains stretching for 1,500 miles (2,400 km) north and south from the Arctic tundra to the deserts of the Caspian Sea. The polar section is covered by tundra. The central Urals known as the Ore Urals have many low passes. The southern section consists of several high, parallel ridges that rise to 5,377 feet (1,639 meters) in the Yaman-Tau. This region is drained by the Ural and Kama Rivers into the Caspian Sea.
The Urals is the second most populated area in the country and is made up primarily of Russians, with some Bashkirs, Tatars, Udmurts, and Komi-Permyaks. Known to medieval Russians as the Stone Belt, the Urals were reached in the early 12th century by colonists and fur traders from Novgorod. Colonization developed rapidly in the late 16th century. The first ironworks were established in the 1630s, and metallurgy was encouraged by Peter the Great. In the late 18th and early 19th century the Urals area was a major iron producer, but its relative importance declined in the late 19th century.
One of the unique features of the Urals is the spectrum of mineral resources found there. It proudly claims the existence of all known chemical elements on Earth. Iron ore is mined in the south, and there are rich deposits of coal, copper, gold. Oil fields and refineries along the Kama and Belaya rivers produce oil. Emeralds, chrysoberyl, topaz, and amethyst are mined, as are deposits of bauxite, zinc, lead, silver, platinum, nickel. The proximity and easy access to natural resources, combined with the impact of the massive evacuation during WWII of heavy industry from the war front to areas further east, led to today's dense industrial life with busy cities and hard-working people.
This area provides great opportunities to get out and enjoy nature by camping, hiking or rafting.
The southern Urals, stretching from the valley of the Ural River near the city of Orsk to the valley of the Ufa River north of Mount Yurma, are the widest. The eastern slopes are characterized by forest-steppe with numerous lakes, while the western slopes are characterized by karst regions and a forest zone up to a height of about 1200 metres. The southern part is mostly steppe.
The southern region of the Urals is densely populated. It has a well-developed railway, auto transport, and communication system. In the southern Urals there are several national reserves - among them Bashkirskii Nature Reserve with the well-known cave “Capova” and Mineralogical Ilmenskii Reserve. The southern Urals are very popular among tourists (rafting) because of the many ideal rivers and a very convenient transport infrastructure.
The Urals have long supplied Russia with locally mined precious and semi-precious stones. They are widely used by local craftsmen who create wonderful designs in order to make exquisite and unique jewelry. Their masterpieces are famous worldwide.
My Native Town
I'd like to tell you about my native town. It is situated in the Southern Urals not far from Chelyabinsk, administrative centre of our region. Our town is unique and unforgettable in many aspects.
My town is located in a very picturesque place among beautiful lakes after which it goes its name. In the north it faces lake Irtyash, one of the largest and deepest one. In the west one can see magnificent mountains of the Kushtum Chain with high peaks of Soogomuck and Yagoza famous in local legends and songs. In the south the town borders on lakes Bolshaya Nanoga and Malaya Nanoga. To the east runs a beautiful valley with birch and pine forests rich in berries and mushrooms.
The history of Ozersk is closely connected with the history of the country. Though it is one of the youngest towns in our region it became very important. The date of its birth is considered the 9th of November 1945 when first workers and engineers came here to build a unique industrial complex. The entire country participated in the construction of the first atomic plant so people of many nationalities live in our town. Enthusiasm of the builders was great and soon the plants began working and first houses of young town appeared.
Ozersk is a town of science. First of all we associate the name of outstanding scientist Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov with the history of the town. Kurchatov headed the works in creation of nuclear weapon. He engaged many scientists in research and investigation of physical and chemical characteristics of substances used in atomic industry. There is a museum to I.V. Kurchatov in Ozersk. The monument was erected in the middle of the square after his name. There are dozens research centres in the town.
Our town is famous for its architecture. The symbol of the town is Rotunda standing on the high bank of the Irtyash. From here you can see a magnificent and picturesque scenery. Now the town is divided into 3 parts: an old part and 2 new ones.
Each district has attractions if its own. The old town with its 4-5 storey buildings and lots of greenery and new districts with wide avenues and multistoried houses present a unity of generations. The town is decorated with many flowerbeds. All residents like Pushkin Street. It is very cozy and romantic. The houses are hidden among wild apple-trees, fir trees, pines and bushes of lilac and bird-cherry. In late fall and early spring lots of bullfinches and chatters come here to taste berries and wild apples.
There are many monuments in our town: the monument to pioneers of nuclear energy called "Prometenium", the monument to victims of the World War II and others.
There is the department of Moscow Physical Engineering Institute. Its graduates work at the production enterprise "Mayak". There are many secondary schools with extensive English, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology learning. There are several vocational technical schools where students are given good work habits.
Our town is a cultural centre as well. We have some libraries (this is the Central City Library with a monument to Pushkin nearby). It houses not only books, newspapers and magazines but records, tapes, CDs and pictures, its light halls usually serve as picture and exhibition gallery. Here you can see works of local artists and other interesting exhibitions.
There is a musical school where young citizens are given instructions in playing the piano, the violin, the saxophone and other instruments. There is an Art College. We have several theatres and cinemas like puppet theatre "The Gold Rooster" for little children, drama theatre "Our Home", people operetta theatre in the cultural centre "Mayak" and different studios in the Youth Cultural Palace. Located in the picturesque scenery of the Southern Urals among the mountains and lakes with its charming mixture of the old and new, my town creates an unforgettable impression. This is the town of my parents and grandparents’ youth, its first builders. This is the place I belong and I love it dearly.
Задание 1.Ответьте на вопросы по тексту «My Native Town»
1. Is Ozersk your native town?
2. Are there many districts in the town? A few years ago there were no houses at all, were there?
3. What houses and buildings are there under construction now?
4. Are there many wonderful places worth seeing and visiting?
5. What streets are there in your town?
6. Where do you always cross the street?
7. What do you do when the yellow light flashes up?
8. What do you do when you are at a loss which way to take?
Задание 1. Подготовить проект «Родные места» в виде презентации в Power Point
ОБУЧАЮЩИЙ МОДУЛЬ 3.2
Задание 1. Прочитайте и переведите диалоги, обратите внимание на выделенные курсивом слова и словосочетания, выпишите их в словарь и выучите
1. - Excuse me.
- Where is the post office, please?
- It is over there.
- Thank you very much.
- That is all right.
2. - Where can I buy stamps and send a letter?
- You can buy stamps at the post office round the corner.
- Is it far from here?
- No, it is opposite the museum.
3. - Excuse me.
- Yes, can I help you?
- Yes, could you tell me the way to the toy shop?
- It is in Pembroke Street. Cross the street and turn right at the corner.
- Thank you.
4. - Excuse me. Is this the right way to the bookshop?
- Yes, it is. Go straight ahead. It is over there.
- Thank you very much.
- Not at all.
5. - Can you tell me how to get to the market?
- Well, you can take a taxi or a bus.
- How far is it?
- It is about two miles.
6. – Can you help me, please? What is the best way to get to this address?
- I think by bus but you can go on foot.
7. - Can you tell me where the police station is?
- Turn right and go straight ahead.
- Thank you very much.
- That is all right.
8. - How can I get to the supermarket from here?
- Go along Queen Street . Turn to the right. The supermarket is on your left.
- Thank you.
- You are welcome.
9. -Where do you live? - I live in Ozersk.
- Where were you born? - I was born in Ozersk.
- Is Ozersk a big town? - No, it is a small town in the Urals.
- Are there any places worth seeing and visiting there?
- Oh, yes. There are many beautiful palaces of culture there: the cinemas, very nice theatres.
- What is the name of the street you live in?
- I live in Lenin Street. It is a straight street with two- and five-storied houses on either side with trees and lawns between them.
In a Bus Ticket - Office
Customer: How much is a ticket to Reno, please?
Clerk: Forty-two fifty one-way, eighty bucks even round trip. You see, there is a saving if you get the round trip. You want it?
Customer: No thanks. Just one-way, please. I will be going on from there later.
Clerk: Oh, well, in that case you could get a ticket to wherever you’re going after that, or you could get one of our thirty-day passes.
Customer: Thanks very much, but a one-way ticket to Reno is all I need today.
Clerk: Okay, it’s up to you. A one-way to Reno then.
Customer: Yes, thanks.
Clerk:There's a Thai restaurant in the shopping center on Main Street.
Customer:How do I get to Main Street?
Clerk: Do you see the street out here? That's Pioneer. You take that to the first light. That's Main Street. You makea right turn on Main Street and the shopping center is about half a block down on your right. You can't miss it.
Customer:Could you tell me where the nearest mailbox is?
Clerk:Just go out that door and turn right. It's about half a block down on the other side of the street in front of the drugstore.
Задание 2. Прочитайте и переведите текст
Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov
Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov was a Soviet Russian nuclear physicist. He was the leader of the Soviet atomic bomb project. He was one of the main central figures in the Soviet nuclear program. He is best known for his role as a director of nascent Soviet nuclear programme. He led a team of soviet scientists in developing and building a nuclear weapon program. Under his direction Soviet Union successfully tested its first plutonium-based nuclear device, First Lightning in 1949. For this reason he is remembered as "The Father of the Soviet Atomic Bomb".
In 1932, he received funding for his own nuclear science research team, which built the Soviet Union's first cyclotron in 1939.
When World War II broke out between Germany and the USSR in 1941, Kurchatov was appointed director of the nascent Soviet nuclear programme. Under the escalating pressures of the war, including the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Kurchatov's team successfully detonated First Lightning (a plutonium implosion bomb) at the Semipalatinsk Test Site in 1949.
Kurchatov subsequently worked on the Soviet hydrogen bomb program (1953), but later worked for the peaceful use of nuclear technology, and advocated against nuclear bomb tests. Among the projects completed under Kurchatov's leadership was the first cyclotron in Moscow (1949), the first Atomic Reactor in Europe (1946), the first Nuclear power plant in the world (1954), the first Nuclear reactor for Submarine.
Kurchatov and his apprentice Georgy Flyorov discovered the basic ideas of the uranium chain reaction and the nuclear reactor concept in the 1930s. In 1942 Kurchatov declared: "At breaking up of kernels in a kilogram of uranium, the energy released must be equal to the explosion of 20,000 tons of trotyl." This announcement was practically verified during the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.
Stalin ordered Kurchatov to produce a bomb by 1948, and put the ruthless Lavrenty Beria in direct command of the project. The project took over the town of Sarov in the Gorki Oblast (now Nizhny Novgorod Oblast) on the Volga, and renamed it Arzamas-16. The team included other prominent Soviet nuclear scientists such as Julii Borisovich Khariton and Yakov Borisovich Zel'dovich.
On 29 August 1949 the team detonated First Lightning, its initial test device (a plutonium implosion bomb) at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. Kurchatov later remarked that his main feeling at the time was one of relief, as he was confident that had the weapon failed, Stalin would have had him shot.
Kurchatov subsequently worked on the Soviet hydrogen bomb program (1953), but later worked for the peaceful use of nuclear technology, and advocated against nuclear bomb tests.
During the A-bomb programme, Kurchatov swore he would not cut his beard until the program succeeded, and he continued to wear a large beard (often cut into eccentric styles) for the remainder of his life, earning him the nickname "The Beard". Kurchatov died in Moscow in 1960 of a blood clot in his brain, and his ashes were buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis on Red Square.
Задание 1. Прочитайте и выполните задание по тексту (заполните таблицу)
Последнее изменение этой страницы: 2016-04-19; Нарушение авторского права страницы
infopedia.su Все материалы представленные на сайте исключительно с целью ознакомления читателями и не преследуют коммерческих целей или нарушение авторских прав. Обратная связь - 18.104.22.168 (0.06 с.)