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The Metropolitan Police Force
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The Metropolitan Police Force is responsible for an area of 788 square miles within a radius of about 15 miles (excluding the City of London). The police authority for the area, which is known as the Metropolitan Police District, is the Home Secretary, who is responsible to Parliament for police action in the area. The operational head of the force, responsible for its general direction and administration, is the Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis.
The Metropolitan Police District is divided into 24 divisions (23 land divisions and the Thames Division) which are organized into four districts, each subject to inspection by a district inspector with the rank of commander, whose responsibility is the efficiency of the entire police system within those divisions over which he has jurisdiction. Each of the divisions is itself in the charge of a chief superintendent, the land divisions being further divided into sub-divisions, each under a superintendent. Within these sub-divisions a unit system, which gives a chief inspector or inspector full operational control of a single station area, is being introduced.
The responsibilities of the Metropolitan Police Force within the limits of the Metropolitan Police District are similar to those of any other police force, namely, the maintenance of law and order and the prevention of crime. In addition it has some extra functions, for instance, the protection of the Royal Family and some Ministers of the Crown and the policing of the Palace of Westminster, and certain of its departments give assistance, if required, to other forces in the investigation of crime.
Text D. Read the text and ask questions on it to be discussed in class.
Scotland Yard is the headquarters of the Metropolitan Police in London. Scotland Yard is situated on the Thames Embankment close to the Houses of Parliament and the familiar clock tower of Big Ben, and its jurisdiction extends over 740 square miles with the exception of the ancient City of London, which possesses its own separate police force.
One of the most successful developments in Scotland Yard's crime detection and emergency service has been the «999 system». On receipt of a call the 999 Room operator ascertains by electronic device the position of the nearest available police car, which is contacted by radio. Almost instantly, a message is also sent by teleprinter to the police stations concerned, so that within seconds of a call for assistance being received, a police car is on its way to the scene and all neighbouring police stations have been notified.
Apart from the 999 Room, one of the most interesting places in Scotland Yard is the Map Room. Here is the Central Crime Map, the Deaths by Violence Map, the Accidents Map and the Vehicles Recovered Map.
An old-established section of the Metropolitan Police is the Mounted Branch, with its strength of about 200 horses stabled at strategic points. These horses are particularly suited to ceremonial occasions, for they are accustomed to military bands.
An interesting branch of Scotland Yard is the branch of Police Dogs, first used as an experiment in 1938. Now these dogs are an important part of the Force. One dog, for example, can search a warehouse in ten minutes, whereas the same search would take six men an hour.
There is also the River Police or Thames Division, which has its own crime investigation officers who handle all crimes occurring within its river boundaries.
There are two other departments of Scotland Yard – the Witness Room (known as the Rogues' Gallery) where a photographic record of known or suspected criminals is kept, and the Museum, which contains murder relicts, forgery exhibits and coining moulds.
The name «Scotland Yard» originates from the plot of land adjoining Whitehall Palace where, in about the 14th century, the royalty and nobility of Scotland stayed when visiting the English Court. The popular nickname of the London policeman «bobby» is a tribute to Sir Robert Peel, and whose Christian name attached itself to members of the force.
Text E. Translate the text in writing. Get ready to discuss it.
Interpol is an international corporation founded in 1923 as a service organization devoted to coordinating actions against international criminals. Its clients are 174 agencies throughout the world. This organization is not under the control or supervision of any government.
Interpol is a recognized intergovernmental police force whose task is to hunt down the international criminals. A multinational force, much like the United Nations, Interpol is made up of police of the Free World and a bona fide law enforcement agency in its own right. Among the first to fight international terrorism and sky-jackings, Interpol still leads the war on narcotics, assists a number of nations in the continuing search for wanted Nazi war criminals. One of the most highly respected groups in the world, Interpol, like any other police force is under governmental control to safeguard the basic rights of every citizen. It operates according to a strict code of behaviour and adheres to the highest ethical standards.
Interpol has never been recognized or established by any international charter or treaty and has no police powers. Because of Interpol's cooperation with the UN particularly in the area of drugs, Interpol was recognized as an intergovernmental organization.
Interpol members are, for the most part, police and not governmental representatives, although certain governments have sent observers from their military, intelligence, customs, post office, and immigration departments.
Interpol does not have powers of arrest or any investigative rights. Its function is to disseminate information. Today 80 percent of the permanent staff is French. Interpol is much like any large corporation with bureaus in various countries and with representatives from these offices also stationed at the main office. Information is exchanged between the many national bureaus, but the police forces themselves are subject to he laws and policies of their respective nations.
Interpol is divided into four main bodies – the General Assembly, the Executive Committee, the General Secretariat and the National Central Bureaus.
The General Assembly is composed of the delegates from each member country. It is «the Supreme Authority». The General Assembly controls the policy of the organization.
The Executive Committee is a nine-member board made-up of the president, two vice-presidents, and six delegates chosen by the General Assembly.
The General Secretariat, the permanent body, located in Lion, is Interpol's business division. It contains the «permanent departments» four of which specialize in certain crimes: one handles murder, burglary, assault, larceny, car theft, and missing persons; another deals with bank frauds and other types of embezzlement; a third with drug traffic and moral offences; and a fourth deals with forgery and counterfeiting.
Other divisions are the general record departments, where files are kept, and a special records department, where fingerprints and other methods of identification are used.
The National Central Bureaus are the Interpol offices in various countries. Each NCB is empowered to communicate directly with and exchange information with any other NCB.
Text F. Read and translate the text. Make up the summary of the text in writing.
Police Force in the U.S.A.
Over the years law enforcement has become increasingly complex. A century ago police officers communicated with one another by rapping their nightsticks on the cobblestone streets; today computerized radio systems do the job. Sophisticated hardware has replaced the crude devices of old; extended periods of training have replaced the early apprenticeship system; helicopters and automobiles have replaced fixed-post sentries and horse-drawn patrol wagons. Yet contemporary policemen have the same general objectives as did their counterparts of old: (1) to protect life and property and safeguard the individual liberties guaranteed by the Constitution and (2) to prevent crime and disorder and preserve the peace.
Policemen are given certain limited powers to pursue these objectives. Those powers are either derived from or restricted by six sources:
1. The United States Constitution.
2. Legislation of the United States Congress.
3. Legislative enactments of the various states.
4. Local and county ordinances.
5. Court decisions interpreting the constitutions and the statutes.
6. Court precedents.
a) General Investigation Division
The FBI, formally called the Bureau of Investigation, was created primarily to handle criminal investigations for the Department of Justice.
The FBI responsibilities continue to grow each year.
The FBI handles over 180 different investigations including Federal criminal violations, internal security matters and civil inquiries in which the Government has an interest.
Since 1945, over 95 percent of the cases investigated by its agents which came before the courts have resulted in convictions.
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