Verb noun(agent) noun(concept) 

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Verb noun(agent) noun(concept)

to limit

to enforce

to protect

to adopt

to elect

to function

to compose

to administer

to form

to alter

to act

to operate operator operation

Ex. 3. Pair the words in column B with the ones from column A

1. senior 2. ministerial 3. single 4. general 5. changing 6. special 7. powerful 8. supreme 9. administrative 10. similar 11. changing 12. national 13. political 14. changing a) government b) affair c) document d) procedure e) structure f) condition g) authority h) law i) agreement j) office k) minister l) policy m) conditions n) event

Ex. 4. Decide which of the verbs you would use with the noun phrases you have identified in ex. 3

to attend, to have, to operate, to alter, to vest, to pass, to create, to adapt, to form, to be responsible for, to contain, to response, to appoint, to head

Ex. 5.Add adjectives to the following nouns to form noun phrases

individual, formal, national, general, constitutional, judicial, initiating, considerable, amending, delaying, local, political, general

Ex. 6. Match Russian and English equivalents.

a) изменять договор 1.a set of ground rules
b) приводить в действие reflect the national soul
c) проект закона alter the convention
d) откладывать закон vest with the legislative power
e) проводить частное и секретное судопроизводство put into effect
f) набор основных правил interpret laws
g) облекать законодательной властью apply laws
h) толковать закон 8.a draft law
i) делать (давать) детальное обсуждение give detailed consideration
j) координирование правительственных ведомств delay the law
k) отражать национальный дух 11.coordination of government departments
l) применять закон have private and confidential proceedings
m) назначать на должность 13.universal suffrage
n) распускать (парламент) abandon rights
o) злоупотреблять властью dismiss
p) приостанавливать, откладывать (сохранять) suspend
q) придерживаться интересов 17.abuse of power
r) всеобщее избирательное право retain interest
s) отказаться от прав 19.nominate

Ex. 7 Find English equivalents for:

абсолютное большинство; отклонить законопроект; выдвинуть законопроект; налогообложение; внести поправку в законопроект; обсуждать политические вопросы; королевская санкция; ассигновать деньги для нужд правительства; принять закон; обсуждать законопроект; подробно обсудить; направить законопроект на рассмотрение; отложить принятие законопроекта.

Ex. 8. Match a word with a proper definition.

1. constitution a) established socially accepted practice;
2. monarch b) the main law-making body, made up of the Queen, the lords and the elected representatives of the people;
3. custom c) a change, made in or suggested for a rule, law, statement;
4. authority d) a fact to be considered when making a decision;
5. parliament e) the most important ministers of the government, who meet as a group to make decisions or to advise the head of the government;
6. sessions f) the power or right to control and command;
7. prorogation g) to establish;
8. amendments h) the people who rule;
9. consideration i) the body of laws and principles according to which a country is governed;
10. the Cabinet j) to put off until later;
11. government k) a ruler of a state who has a right by birth to the office or title, and doesn’t have to be elected;
12. the Prime Minister l) a body of people of high rank in politics and public life who may advise the king or queen on certain State affairs;
13. constitute m) a formal meeting of a law-making body or court;
14. delay n) to bring to an end a regular set of meetings until the members return on a stated day to continue unfinished business;
15. the Privy Council o) first in rank or importance; chief;

Ex. 9. Write as many words and expressions as you can. Use the vocabulary of the Unit.

Parlament Monarchy Government Legislation
House of Lords the Queen reigns but does not rule Bill to be amended by

Ex. 10. All the words in the box are used in the text to refer to law and laws.

a) Look at each word in context and try to decide its exact use or uses.

Which terms are similar or equivalent?

Which words are quite different from all the other?

Law practice Act of Parlament
Convention provision Legal enactment
rule bill Statute law


b) Complete the passage below by choosing the best word from the box for each blank space. Do not use any word more than once. Choose the singular or plural form and the article a or an as appropriate.

English Laws

A proposal of law, or 1) ________ only becomes a/an 2) ______ called a/an 3) ________ when all its 4) ________ have been approved by the Queen in Parliament. Many 5) _________ of English constitutional 6) _______ do not derive (come) from 7) __________ or common law, but are political; 8) ________ called 9) _________ which have the force of law.

Ex. 11. In the sentences below, fill each blank space with a suitable word from the word family given in capitals on the right.

1. The constitution is changing to the __________ of laws in the courts and the ___________ of new Acts of Parlament. (Interpre, Introduce)

2. The government is responsible for ___________ laws into effect and directing ____________ policy. (Put, Nation)

3. Bill’s __________ in printed form is announced in the chamber. (Publicate)

4. The Prime Minister is responsible for Cabinet agendas and the control of Cabinet__________. (Proceed)

5. Nearly all British citizens over the age of 18 are members of the ______ (Elect).

6. In the British constitutions the Queen in Parliament is the legislative ___________ (Sovereign)

7. Many British ________ are in favour of changing the ________ (Vote, Elect).

8. For the purpose of tax, a person is ______ in the UK if s/he stays there for more than six months of the year. (Reside)

9. Parliament _____ the ____ of the special Commission. (Approve, Recommend)

10. Direct ________ to the European Parliament are held every five years. (Elect)

Ex. 12. Choose the correct alternative and complete each of the sentences below.

1. The ___________ met urgently at 10 Downing Street to decide government policy on the new economic crisis.

a) civil service b) Privy Council c) Cabinet d) ministries

2. The exact effect of legislation is influenced by judicial _________ .

a) interpretation b) custom c) sovereignty d) codification

3. Parliament is a ____________ body.

a) legislation b) legislature c) legislative d) legislate

4. _____________, codes and delegated legislation are all sources of written law.

a) Law reports b) statutes c) Rules of law d) Court cases

5. The Minister presented the new Housing ____________ to the House of Commons for reading and debate

a) Act b) Code c) Law d) Bill

6. The government lost the confidence of the House of Commons, Parliament was dissolved and a/an ___ was called.

a) general Election b) electoral roll c) by-election d) election campaign

7. In general, a Bill becomes an Act of Parliament when it has received the ________ of both Houses of Parliament and the sovereign.

a) consent b) ratification c) enactment d) assent


Ex. 1. Complete the following sentences in part A by adding the phrases given in part B.


1. A constitution is ...

2. The British constitution is made up of ...

3. Most modern constitutions have adopted ...

4. The executive branch puts ...

5. Law courts constitute ...

6. The first reading of a bill is followed by ...

7. If the Lords agree to a bill ...

8. The composition of government may vary both ...

9. The Cabinet can always have ...

10. The job of Lord Chancellor is ...

11. The United Kingdom is...

12. British constitution is…


1. ... the judicial branch.

2. ... in the number of ministers and in titles.

3. ... administration of all courts, judicial appointments and appointment of magistrates.

4. ... more than a mechanical set of ground rules.

5. ... the laws into effect.

6. ... it will be passed before the Queen for signature.

7. ... the last word.

8. ... statute law, common law and conventions.

9. ... a debate in general principle.

10. ... the principle of separation of powers.

11. … a constitutional monarchy

12. … is not contained in any siugal document.

Ex. 2. Mark the statements which are true and prove your idea.

1. The Constitution describes the life of the people.

2. The Constitution is contained in a lot of documents.

3. In Britain Parliament is the supreme authority.

4. Law courts interpret and apply laws.

5. To become an Act of Parliament a bill must be signed by the Queen.

6. In the House of Commons a bill must pass only one reading.

7. The Lords can reject any bill.

8. The Government consists of about seventy politicians.

9. The Cabinet proceedings are private and confidential.

10. The Court judgements are the subject to ministerial direction or control.

Ex. 3.Complete the following text with the words and pharases from the box. Speak on the reforms in the British Parlament

proposal remain
membership honour
chamber hereditary
legislation the House of Lords executive
public issues to undergo
relevant confidence
government measures
to produce voter-friendly

1. The Lords reform 1) _______ published at the end of 2001 suggested.

2. reshuffling of lords 2) ________;

3. separating from the peerage, which would 3) ______ purely as a formal 4) _________;

4. getting rid of the last of the 5) _______ members of 6) ________;

5. The job of the House of Lords will remain principally to consider and revise 7) _______, to scrutinise the 8) _______ and to debate and report on 9) _____.

6. The House of Commons is 10) ______ considerable changes as well. The Commons reform is aimed at boosting public 11) ______ that Parliament is 12) _____ to their lives. The proposals also include 13) ________ to help MPs to keep te government in check and better laws. There are the plans to make 14) _______ more Parliament more “friendly” for MPs, but rather 15) _______.

Ex 4.Answer the questions:

1. What is the British Constitution formed up with?

2. What does the Constitution reflect?

3. What principle does the Constitution safeguard?

4. What are the functions of Parliament?

5. How long does Parliament hold the office?

6. What is the life of a Parliament?

7. How is the House of Commons elected?

8. Are there any allowances for MPs?

9. Who is the chief officer of the House of Commons?

10. What are his responsibilities?

11. What is the composition of the House of Lords?

12. Who is the house of lords presided by?

13. How does he conduct his business?

14. How is the Prime Minister chosen in Britain?

15. What does “cabinet government” mean? What are its strengths and weakness?

Ex. 5. Speak on the British Constitution

a) The Constitution itself as the supreme law:

the political and ideological structure, to make and enforce laws, to reflect the national soul, to protect the values, to contain, to make up, to alter a convention, to prevent, to vest with powers, to be the supreme authority, to put into effect, to constitute, to interpret laws, to apply laws.

b) Parliament:

to require for legislation, to pass laws, to adopt, to sign, to introduce a bill, the first reading, to debate, to give detailed consideration, to amend, to reject.

c) Government:

to hold office, to be responsible for, to create, to abolish, to transfer, to be composed of, to have the last word, the Cabinet sanction, the Court of Appeal.

d) Judiciary:

to be independent, judgements, control, to recommend, the Lord Chancellor, legal system, administration of courts, judicial appointments, the appointment of magistrates.

Ex. 6. Fill in the table. Use the information from the unit.


The Monarch
· The head of state · · · ·


· The Queen in Parliament (The Monarch, The House of Commons) is the supreme authority · · ·
The House of Lords · not elected, mainly hereditary · · ·   The House of Commons · elected by almost universal suffrage · · ·
The Government
· Ministers appointed by the monarch on the Prime Minister’s recommendation · · ·
The Cabinet · about 23 most important ministers · · ·   The Prime Minister · head of government · · ·

Grammar Practice

Tenses in the Active Voice

Ex. 1 Use the verbs in brackets in proper tense and voice

1. The House of Lords _____ (consist) of the Lords Temporal and the Lords Spiritual.

2. The Lords Spiritual _____ (be) the Archbishops of York and Canterbury.

3. The Lords Temporal _____ (represent) hereditary peers who _____ (to inherit) their titles.

4. The Lords of Appeal (Law Lords) _____ (become) life peers on their judicial appointments.

5. Law Lords _____ (serve) the House of Lords as the ultimate court of appeal.

6. The appeal court _____(consist) of some nine Law Lords who _____ (to hold) senior judicial office.

7. The Lord Chancellor _____ (preside) over these nine Lords and they _____ (form) a quorum of three to five when they _____ ( hear) appeal cases.

8. The functions of the Prime Minister _____ (be): _____ (lead) the majority party, _____ (run) the government, _____ (appoint) Cabinet Ministers and other ministers, _____ (represent) the nation in political matters.

9. After the Prime Minister _____ (form) his cabinet he ____( select) the rest of his ministry.

10. The Cabinet _____ (constitute) the centre of the government.

11. The Cabinet _____ (make) all major decisions of the government.

Ex. 2 Choose the correct verb form:

a) Present Simple and Present Continuous

We are going/go to Italy next week. We take/are taking the plane. Usually we have/are having two weeks' holiday, but this year we have/are having four. We don't take/aren't taking the car because the journey takes/ is taking too long. We stay/are staying at a friend's house in Verese. Usually he works/is working in Milan but at the moment he spends/is spending the summer in New York.

b) used to / would

Howard Hughes, the American film producer, lived/used to live for fifteen years completely on his own. He was spending/used to spend all day lying on his bed watching films. He would/used to hate touching any thing that wasn't/didn't use to be sterile. He was living/used to live on tinned chicken soup for weeks, and was changing/ used to change to a diet of ice cream. When he died/ used to die, he was/ used to be a billionaire.

Ex. 3. Use the required form of the verb in the Active Voice.

1. The Party which (obtain) the majority of seats in the House of Commons (form) the Government.

2. There (be) a legend that the Tower (fall) if it (lose) its ravens; therefore the English carefully (guard) the birds with clipped wings.

3. The collection of books in the British Museum Library (increase) systematically, and the famous circular Reading Room of the Museum, planned by Sir Antonio Panizzi, (offer) unique research facilities to scholars.

4. The plane (leave) early tomorrow, and in three hours it (land) in one of the airports in London.

5. When Scotland (be) an independent Kingdome, it (be) often at war with England until 1603 when King James VI of Scotland (become) King of England.

6. The Great Fire of London 1666 (clear) away the old wooden houses and dirty narrow streets, and after the fire they (begin) to build wider streets and brick houses in the city.

7. I think I (visit) lots of fascinating places in England and (see) a lot of interesting in London by the time my holiday (be) over.

8. I (write) to tell you my exciting news. I (win) a competition. I am sure my life (change) a lot since now.

9. Next week John (leave) for Oxford to visit his sister, who he (not, see) for a year since she (go) to study there.

10. They (come) back from England by the end of July, and then we (throw) a big party for all our friends.

11. King Alfred (849 – 899) (be) the only monarch in English history who (receive) the title “Alfred the Great”.

12. In 1301, after defeating the native Prince of Wales, King Edward I of England (name) his son “Prince of Wales”. Since then the eldest son of the king or queen of England tradiditionally (have) this title.

13. In 1536 Wales (become) the part of the English system by the Act of Union.

14. Edward I (complete) the subjection of Wales, and it (be) he who (make) his son, afterwards Edward II, the Prince of Wales.

15. The Welsh language (be) still a living force, and the Welsh (study) it side by side with English in schools of Wales.

16. In 1707 Scotland and England (become) a united part, but the Scots (keep) there own legal system, religon and administrative system and still (keep) them now.

17. The Romans (build) Hadrian’s wall, the greatest monument of the Roman occupation of Britain, to act as a defence against the Celts from Scotland.

18. Sir Christopher Wren, the great architect of St. Paul’s Cathedral (die) in 1723, at the age of 90, and they (bury) him in the building which his genius and toil (creat).

19. Today Soho (become) a meeting place for all kinds of people who (come) to London from all over the world, whatever the hour of day or night.

20. The Frenchman, you (look) for yesterday, (learn) English at school quite well, but half (forget) it by the time he (stay) in London on business. I (see) him there a month ago. He (promise) that he (improve) his English by the time he (arrive) in London again.

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