Task 4.17. Form derivatives using the following suffixes and translate the newly formed words into Ukrainian. Compose sentences with the derived words.

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Task 4.17. Form derivatives using the following suffixes and translate the newly formed words into Ukrainian. Compose sentences with the derived words.


-ment:achieve, develop, involve, equip, arrange, establish, require, manage, engage,

govern, environ, improve, measure, state, treat, employ, judge, assess -(a)(t)ion:participate, graduate, present, contribute, recommend, collaborate,

investigate, create, instruct, relate, supervise, discuss, inform, connect, promote,

organize, communicate -ance/-ence:guide, import, perform; expect, resist, maintain, conduct, appear, depend,

occur, admit, attend, accord, prefer, differ, exist, refer, interfere, accept -ity:active, opportune, punctual, possible, major, familiar, similar, responsible, popular,

minor, special, visible -ist:special, economy, ecology, biology, hydrology, biophysics, climatology, botanic,

anatomy -er:advise, research, teach, develop, manage, organize, support, defend, publish, make,

speak, think, mine -or:supervise, instruct, investigate, construct, initiate, edit, sail


-ive:execute, legislate, relate, create, attract, quantity, act, communicate, investigate,

participate, direct, conduct -able/-ible:agree, size, pass, prefer, solve, work, imagine, comfort, use, vary, speak,

change, value, improve, measure, prove, distinguish, achieve, compare, advise, rely,

represent, reason, response, access


-ly: relative, successful, final, direct, active, creative, careful, independent, thorough, absolute, annual, certain, fluent, bad, full

Task 4.18. Rearrange the following jumbled words and phrases to form sentences. The text in Task 4.35 will help you.

1. In addition to, carries out, qualified specialists, and, extensive research, sciences, branches of science, engineering, in various, humanitarian, social, training, Lviv Polytechnic National University.

2. The main task, problems, is mastering, of, solution, independent, of scientific, and, doing research, technical, the methods, set, before the students.

3. Thus, laboratory, are involved, all the students, graduation projects, to curricular activity, and, in research, comprising, exercises, course works, seminars, individual tasks, directly related.

Students' reseach work


4. Doing laboratory exercises, and, students, of the University, their knowledge, must apply, display initiative, in specialised laboratories.

5. Close contacts, in general, of higher learning, and, to the latest, in particular, with, and, businesses, urgent problems, introduce, Lviv Polytechnic, engineering, students achievements, involves them, research institutions, in both science, and," of the region, as well as, in research, into, of, modern economic development, and, the country, of institutions.

6. This helps them, most sophisticated equipment, state-of-the-art technologies, their particular field, modern, used in, study, and, handle, to learn, research methodology.

7. Every graduation paper, small research project, a, a leading professor, the student, of, a scientific adviser, this usually being, actively, up-to-date research, is, in a particular field, carried out by, under the guidance, participating in.

8. In some cases, contains, for professional journal, valuable, enough, publication, and, such a, results, publication, the graduation paper, is then recommended.

9. When the student submits, is qualified, finally becomes, successfully defends it, from the University, as a Bachelor or a Master, and, before the examination board, he, in a certain field, in other words, and, a graduate, he graduates, his graduation paper.

10. The, extracurricular, students’ scientific societies, is arranged, in the form of, research activity.

11. The purpose, science, is, research and instruction, of such societies, in various fields of, economy and liberal arts.

12. The students, lab set-ups, in the societies, theoretical research, produce visual aids, design devices, issues, and, various, they do, of social and humanitarian, who are active.

13. The most promising, and groups, at the departments, the leading professors, are incorporated, into research teams, organised by, undergraduates.

14. Postgraduates, also, their scientific degrees, active members, working for, research associates, as well as, are, of such teams.

15. At Lviv Polytechnic, perfect their knowledge, of five foreign languages:, students, of one, English, German, French, Spanish and Japanese.

16. Under the guidance of, present their reports, students’ scientific conferences, advanced students, Foreign Languages department, teachers, of, prepare, arranged by the department, and, in a foreign language, at, annual.

17. Their reports, of science, usually deal with, engineering, humanitarian problems, urgent problems, social, and.

18. The best students, in a foreign language, and, projects, defend their graduation works.

19. Students are distinguished, in R&D activity, certificates, and, for their success, and,
are awarded, diplomas.

20. Students’ research work, in general, of the R&D activity, in the University, is part
and parcel.

Unit 4



A complex sentence is a sentence that consists of the main clause (головне речення) and one or more subordinate clauses (тдрядт речення). A subordinate clause is a dependent sentence: it cannot be used without the main clause. The idea conveyed by the main clause is not complete without a subordinate clause. Subordinate clauses are often connected to the main clause with the help of connectors or conjunctions. A subordinate clause may follow or precede the main clause. There are different types of subordinate clauses.

Subject clauses (тдметові тдрядт речення) perform the function of a subject. They are connected with the main clause in the following ways: a) by means of the conjunctions that, if, whether; b) by means of the connectors who, which,what,whoever, whatever, where, when, how, why.

Whether their effort to develop an appropriate plan of action was a success is still not obvious. Чи 1хня спроба розробити вщповщний план дшпринесла результат -дос1 не еочевидним.

Who the presenter was and whose interests he supported was unknown.

Ким був доповщач iчшштереси вшшдтримував, було невщомо.

Predicative clauses (предикативш тдрядт речення) perform the function of a predicative. The peculiarity of complex sentences with a predicative clause is that in the main clause we find only part of the predicate, i.e. a link verb, which together with the predicative clause forms a compound nominal predicate. These subordinate clauses are connected with the main clause in the following ways:

a) by means of the conjunctions that, if, whether, as if;

b) by means of the connector who, which, what, where, when, how, why.

Our attitude simply is that facts are facts. Наше ставлення таке: факта ефактами.

The problem was how to complete the task on time. Проблема полягала в тому, як закшчити проект вчасно.

Students' reseach work

Object clauses {додаткові тдрядт речення) perform the function of an object to the predicate-verb of the main clause. They are connected with the main clause in the following ways:

a) by means of the conjunctions that, if, whether; , ,.

b) by means of the connectives who, which, what, whatever, whoever, whichever;

c) asyndetically (без сполучника)

Time will show whether I am right or wrong. Час покаже, я правий чи hi. I am not sure where exactly the workshop will be held. Я не впевнений в тому, де саме буде проведено семшар.

Attributive clauses (означальш тдрядш речення) serve as an attribute to a noun in the main clause. They are introduced by:

a) relative pronouns who, whose, which, that

b) relative adverbs where, when

c) asyndetically

You could not but feel sympathy for a man who failed such an important presentation. Вам не залишаеться шчого, KpiM сшвчуття до людини, яка провалила таку важливу презенташю.

The time has come when he is expected to make an important decision. Прийшов час, коли вщ нього очшують прийняття важливого ргшення.

There was simply nothing else he could do to improve the situation in the company. Просто бшьше шчого не було, що б ще вш Mir зробити для покращення ситуацп в компанп.'

Adverbial clauses (обставинш шдрядш речения) perform the function of an adverbial modifier. There are the following types of adverbial clauses: adverbial clauses of time, place, cause(reason), purpose, condition, concession, result, manner, comparison. The common connectors are:


Time (часу) after, before, since, when, while, whenever, as, as soon as, once, until, as/so long as, by the time (that), now that
Place (мюця) where, wherever
Cause (причини) because, since, so (that), in order (that), as
Purpose (мети) that, in order that, lest
Condition (умовш) if, unless, even if, only if, in case (that), whether or not, in the event (that), provided (that)
Concession faonycTOBi) although, while, though, even though, whereas, whoever, whatever, whichever
Result (результату) that, so
Manner (способу дп) as if, as though
Comparison (nopiBffiUIbHi) than, as


Task 4.19. Read the following complex sentences with different types of subordi­nate clauses, translate them into Ukrainian, and put questions to the subordinate clauses, where possible: Subject Clauses:

1. Whether you have sufficient computer skills is very important for your future employment. = It is very important for your future employment whether you have sufficient computer skills.

2. What you need is practical experience.

3. If he will work in the students translation bureau depends on his command of English.

Predicative Clauses:

4.The question is how we’ll solve this problem.

5. That is why she has chosen this speciality.

6. The matter was that he couldn’t submit his course project on time.

Object Clauses:

7.The dean has just told us who will make reports at the next seminar.

8. The lab assistant will explain how this installation works.

9.We didn’t know where he had studied programming before he entered our university.

Attributive Clauses:

10. The student whose presentation is the best will be awarded a certificate.

11. There are many reasons why students should participate in research work.

12. He is a member of the students scientific society where he perfects his qualification in the field he majors in.

Adverbial Clauses

of time: 13.He will work as a software engineer after he graduates from our university, of place: 14.They want to work where they can apply their theoretical knowledge to

practice. of reason: 15.He hasn’t written the report because he couldn’t find some essential

information on the subject, of purpose: 16.They have arranged a very convenient time-table so that every student

could come and carry out experiments in this lab, of manner: 17.She completed her course project as fast as she could. of condition: 18.If he had read scientific journals, he would have known about the

latest achievements in this field of science.

Students ’ reseach work




Type Main Clause Connectors Subordinate Clause
(Tenses to be used) (Tenses to be used)
ConditionalI Present, Future   Present instead of Future
(real for      
present and Presentations are   presenters put enough
future) реальна always successful,   effort into their preparation.
умова, Real Презентацп завжди   доповщач1 докладають
Condition мають ycnix,   достатньо зусиль для i'x шдготовки.
  You will be a success if, in case, you put enough effort into
  with your   its preparation.
  presentation,   прикладете достатньо
  Ви зробите усшшну   зусиль для н шдготовки.
Conditional II would, could, might + provided, Past Simple, Past
(unreal for Indefinite or Continu-   Continuous ( were for all
present and ous Infinitive suppose, persons is preferred, though
future)   (якщо, за was is also common in
малоймов1рна   умови, що, spoken English)
умова, що   у випадку,  
етосуеться You could make a якщо), you prepared well.
тепертшнього successful unless  
та presentation, (якщо не)  
■ майбутнього Ви могли б зробити   якби добре
часу, уявна усшшну   тдготувались.
ситуащя, презентацию,    
Condition I would prepare well for the next seminar,   I were you.
  Ябаобретдготував-   на твоему мкщ (якби був
  ся до наступного   тобою).

Unit 4


Conditional III (unreal for ever) нереаль­на умова на-завжди, вона вже не вщбу-лася, стосується минулого, Unreal Condition would, could, might + Perfect Infinitive You could have made a successful presentation yesterday Ви могли б зробити ycniumy презентацію вчора (але цього не сталося) Past Perfect you had prepared better. якби краще тдготувалися (але ви цього не зробили)

Note:An if- clause can come at the beginning or at the end of a sentence. When it

comes first, it is often separated by

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