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ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?
Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Task 1.14. Read the texts and do the following tasks: A. Define the forms of the infinitives used.
Young people have ambitions to becomespecialists in various fields of human activity. Lviv Polytechnic National University is one of the best schools of higher learning for those who wish to dedicatetheir lives to science and engineering. It is known to have traineda lot of graduates who became famous scientists and outstanding engineers. Most young people are likely to findhere a field of study to their liking.
The University offers courses in more than 50 subject areas. A list of the main subject areas one can chooseto major in may be foundin the text about LPNU in Getting on in English, a textbook for first-year students. To be enrolledin the University one must pass entrance exams to testifyto the effect that he or she has the necessary knowledge required for them to be able to master the material to be taughtat the undergraduate level leading to the award of a bachelor’s degree after a four-year course of studies. Those who wish to obtaina specialist’s degree or gain a master’s degree have to continuetheir study and research for a further year or two depending on the programme of their choice. The curricula of the courses in each subject area are constantly revised and updated to takeinto account achievements in science and new developments in technology.
During the undergraduate course the would-be researchers and engineers are taught fundamentals of the fields of science to forma sound scientific basis for their future specialities. In many cases a systems approach to subject areas is practised in
order to developstudent’s ability to reason.For instance, to understandhow radio works, it is more important to understandthe function of each unit than to knowwhat components are used. This is known to bea systems approach to electronics. Similar examples can be given to illustratethe peculiarities of other subject areas.
B. Define the functions of the infinitives printed in bold type:
To masterthe main principles of scientific research is the major task for graduate students who qualified to followa master’s course. Students should knowthat to understandmany complicated phenomena in terms of a few simple principles scientists develop theories. But to be taughtbasic theories is not sufficient for one to makea good specialist. So to be providedwith experimental evidence for the theoretical ideas students are made to carry out more and more complicated experiments.
Knowledge of a foreign language is essential for a specialist with a university degree. So the curriculum in engineering includes a foreign language as an obligatory subject to be takenby every student. And the would-be highly qualified specialists are glad to be givenan opportunity to improvetheir knowledge of a foreign language or to takea second foreign language. Some undergraduates are likely to be learningtwo foreign languages simultaneously. English is the most popular with students of all specialities. The course aims to developall four skills through a series of tasks and activities that encourage students to combine their knowledge of English with their technical knowledge.
Graduates of LPNU can be employedin research institutions, industrial establishments and service sector. The high standards of education provided by the University enable them to befully competitive on both the domestic and international markets in the fields of manufacturing and service industries as well as in R and D activities. A diligent student is sure to geta good job after graduating from the University.
Task 1.15.Different categories of verbs are followed by different “patterns”. Some verbs can be followed by another verb in the -ingform (e.g. He enjoys playing computer games), others by to+ the infinitive of another verb (e.g. She wants to leave). Look at the structures which follow predicates in the sentences and match them to the following patterns:
a), subject + modal or auxiliary verb + infinitive;
b). subject + verb + to-infinitive;
c). subject + verb + object + to-infinitive;
d). subject + verb +object + infinitive (without to).
1. He wants to major in electronic engineering.
2. We asked him to help us find a solution to this problem.
3. Fortunately, Maria can speak English as well as Spanish.
4. He made me explain the results obtained.
5. The engineers plan to develop a new device.
6. The inspectors forced the workers to stop the production line.
7. The teacher let him consult the dictionary.
8. The applicants for this job must have high qualification and experience.
Task1.16. Make up sentences using the essential vocabulary and the verbs given below to test which of the patterns in task1.15 can follow them. Then write a, b, c, or d beside each verb, ,ook at the eist of patttrns sn the Appendix and check your answers.
must hope want help let needmake ask agree tell invite force
Task1.17. Read the letter and give some pieces of advice to Irene, her boss and her colleague, using the following phrases:
I think you should / shouldn’t... If I were you, I would ...
I think you’d better ... I (strongly) advise you (not) to ...
You must / needn’t... Why don’t you ...
I’m so sorry that I haven’t written to you since I got the new job. In the beginning it was a nightmare and I really had no time to spare. But let me write about everything in proper succession and you '11 be able to make your own judgment. Three months ago I met an acquaintance of mine who had a small business of his own. He was looking for a secretary. I applied for the job and was employed immediately. 1 have always thought that one needn’t have any experience or special qualification to work as a secretary: one just should be sociable and industrious. And 1 was absolutely right. Though, when J first entered the office, 1 was greatly surprised: there were several chairs, a big polished table, two desks with computers, a printer, a telephone, a bookcase, a safe and some bright posters on the walls. “I can see no typewriter! And where are business papers?”, I asked my boss. “In the computers”, he answered. It took me an hour or so to persuade him that computer is a potentially dangerous thing infested with viruses, hackers and non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. So, he bought a typewriter, a lot of paper, folders, two extra bookcases, and allowed me to store documents and conduct correspondence in an old-fashioned but reliable way. I typed all documents and letters at least in two copies: top copies
for us and carbon copies for our customers. However, some customers began to complain that carbons were difficult to read and contained mistakes. Customers are always hard to please, you know. But I was doing my best and soon bookcases were choked up with files and documents were stockpiled on the desb and on the. floor under the big polished table. Quite often it took me hours to find some document. No wonder that I felt tired and overworked. So, my boss had to employ an extra secretary. She is a real beauty: a tall blonde with blue eyes. Unfortunately, she cannot type as it could damage her long manicured nails. But she is very inventive. For example, she suggested buying an electric kettle and having lunch right in the office. It's very convenient and saves time though documents get occasionally smeared with butter or coffee and the kettle leaves white spots on the polished surface of the big table. Whatever they say about blondes, ours is clever with computers: she often plays computer games or chats with strangers in the Internet. It increases expenses of the firm, of course, but, on the other hand, what are those computers in the office for? And my colleague is so communicative. If she isn*t busy operating the computer, she is talking with her numerous friends over the telephone so it is a little bit difficult for customers to get through. However, it doesn’t matter much because recently we have lost most of our customers. There is such a fierce competition in the market nowadays, you know.
P.S. My boss has just told me that if nothing changes, he'll go bankrupt. Who could have thought about it! His business seemed to be so prosperous three months ago. I'd like to help him. Could you advise something? But just in case, darling, let me know if there is some solid company in your city which needs an experienced secretary or two. I'mlooking forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely,________________________________________________ Irene.
Task 1.18. Divide into groups (not more than 4 students in each). Pooling resources try to understand the following text. Choose any 5 of the traits mentioned and discuss them in your group. Who of you possesses them in this or that degree? One member of the group should make notes of the discussion; choose the person who will speak on behalf of the whole group during the general discussion using the notes done. Other members of the group should be ready to add anything they think appropriate. The time given for the discussions in groups is 15-20 minutes.
Sixteen traits recruiters seek in job prospects are as follows :
1. Ability to communicate.Do you have the ability to organize your thoughts and ideas effectively? Can you express them clearly when speaking and writing? Can you present your ideas to others in a persuasive way?
2. Intelligence.Do you have the ability to understand the job assignment? Learn the details of operation? Contribute original ideas to your work?
3. Self-confidence.Do you demonstrate a sense of maturity that enables you to deal positively and effectively with situations and people?
4. Willingness to accept responsibility.Are you someone who recognizes what needs to be done and is willing to do it?
5. Initiative.Do you have the ability to identify the purpose for work and to take action?
6. Leadership.Can you guide and direct others to obtain the recognized objectives?
7. Energy level.Do you demonstrate a forcefulness-and capacity to make things move ahead? Can you maintain your work effort at an above-average rate?
8. Imagination.Can you confront and deal with problems that may not have standard solutions?
9. Flexibility.Are you capable of changing and being receptive to new situations and ideas?
10. Interpersonal skills.Can you bring out the best efforts of individuals so they become effective, enthusiastic members of a team?
11. Self-knowledge.Can you realistically assess your own capabilities? See yourself as others see you? Clearly recognize your strengths and weaknesses?
12. Ability to handle conflict.Can you successfully contend with stress situations and antagonism?
13. Competitiveness.Do you have the capacity to compete with others and the willingness to be measured by your performance in relation to that of others?
14. Goal achievement.Do you have the ability to identify and work toward specific goals? Do such goals challenge your abilities?
15. Vocational skills.Do you possess the positive combination of education and skills required for the position you are seeking?
16. Direction.Have you defined your basic personal needs? Have you determined what type of position will satisfy your knowledge, skills and goals?
Adapted from “Understanding Business” by Williams G. Nickels.
Task 1.19. Discuss these topics, working in small teams:
1. Jobs in engineering.
2. Job which you would like to do in future.
3. Attractions and disadvantages of the engineering profession.
Task 1.20. Read the following dialogues. Memorize their content and reproduce them from memory:
A: -I’d like to have a word with you.
B:-What’s the matter?
A:- I’ve chosen my future speciality.
B: - At last. What institute are you going to enter?
A:- Lviv Polytechnic.
B: - That’s interesting! What department?
A:- I’m going to become an electrical engineer.
В: - Why an electrical engineer?
A: - Oh, electrical power engineering is an extremely broad professional field. It
involves generation, consumption and distribution of electrical energy and deals with
different kinds of fuel: coal, gas, oil, nuclear fuel, thermonuclear sources of energy
and so on.
B: - I’m glad you’ve made your choice.
C: -1 wonder what subjects shall we study this year?
D: - As far as I know, we shall have a lot of special subjects, such as high voltage
technique, protective relay and others.
C: - How shall we manage this?
D: - Oh, don’t worry! If you know physics, mathematics, theoretical and applied
mechanics, you’ll easily cope with the task.
C: - Yes, no doubt whatever. But what about English? I’ve heard it’s an optional
course this year!
D: - What a pity! We must read plenty of original literature in our speciality to keep
pace with time.
C: - I’d rather have our regular lessons.
D: - So would I.
Task 1.21. According to the patterns in the dialogues given above ask your friend:
1. - why he has chosen this speciality;
2. - what his favourite special subject is and why;
3. - what problems are solved by specialists of the speciality he has chosen.
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