Professional Ethics and Computer Scienceflnformation Systems



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Professional Ethics and Computer Scienceflnformation Systems



If you are looking at this page, you probably have an interest in (or have been told by a professor to have an interest in) computers and ethics.

Ethics One definition of ethics, according to Merriam-Webster, is "a set of moral principles or values". You may derive your own personal ethics from many sources: your family and culture," your religion or faith, the legal system where you live, etc. However, ethics in general is not the topic of this web page.

Computing Ethics Sometimes you will hear someone refer to "computing ethics", which is a whole range of ethical questions surrounding computer science and the use of computers.

Professional Ethics This web page discusses professional ethics (or professional practice): the "principles of conduct" that we agree to be governed by as computer scientists and engineers.

As a student at Stony Brook, you have agreed to follow the university's rules regarding academic honesty and appropriate conduct. These are a statement of professional conduct for students. Faculty have their own rules regarding professional conduct (the Computer Science faculty have adopted a statement which will soon be on the department's web site). Depending on where you are in life, you may have several different sets of professional ethics to adhere to. It is important to think about who you are, what roles you play, and how you can act professionally in those different roles.

This web page is one place for you to start thinking about professional ethics.

(Adapted from the Internet)

Center for the Study of Ethics Codes of Ethics Online

In June 1996, our Center received a grant from the National Science Foundation to put our extensive collection of codes of ethics on the web. We included those codes of ethics of professional societies, corporations, government, and academic institutions, of the over 850 codes we have in our paper archive, who gave us permission to include their code. Earlier versions of codes of ethics of some organizations represented are available to allow researchers to study the development of codes. A literature review, an introduction to the codes, and a user’s guide are included.

Navigating the Codes: the most direct point of contact with the codes is achieved by

• browsing the Index of Codes, or an alphabetical list of codes, or

• searching the codes using our customized Google search engine.



Unit 6


Guide to Codes of Ethics Collection

Introduction An introduction that covers the debate about the function and value of codes of ethics.

The Index of Codes The codes, organized by professional category, are drawn from the continually growing collection held by CSEP’s Library and from the web. Search the codes here.

Compilation of Codes in the paper and online collection. Codes of Ethics divided into the following broad categories, Professional and Trade, Business, Government, and Other, and then listed alphabetically by association name.

Permissions Information We have published online only codes for which we have received permission from the firm or organization that produced the code.

Using Codes of Ethics This guide offers a context for using a code of ethics by considering a sample case.

Writing a Code of Ethics Find here some print and online sources for writing a code of ethics for your organization.

Authoring a code: Observations on process and organization This paper was written by Andrew Olson, who worked on the project just after completing his undergraduate degree.

Bibliography: Books, Articles and Cases This list of materials, many of which offer case studies, will help you use your profession’s code.

Other Online Sources of Codes of Ethics Having difficulty finding an organization’s code of ethics? Try our links to other collections of codes of ethics which are available online.

Participants in the Project Who has helped make this material available online?

There are many computer science-related organizations that have codes of ethics (Berleur and Brunnstein 1996). However, most computer scientists are members of the ACM or the IEEE, and so have agreed to be bound by one of the following:

• The ACM Code of Ethics

• The АСМЯЕЕЕ Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice

• The IEEE Code of Ethics

Printouts of the ACM/IEEE code of ethics are available in the Computer Science Building outside the office of the undergraduate secretary.

What you can do:Look up one of the above codes of ethics. Read it. Print it out and save it for reference. It is there to protect and guide you, as well as to protect those you work with and for.

Most large companies have an ethics officer, who is there to educate and advise employees about issues relating to professional practice. You may meet one or


Professional ethics_______________________________________________________ 247

more of the ethics officers from local companies, such as CA, Symbol and Reuters, during your time at.Stony Brook.

Organizations that are broadly considered to “be about”' ethics of computing, or professional practice in computer science, include:

• Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility

• The Centre for Computing and Social Responsibility

• The Center for Applied Ethics, page on Computer and Information Ethics

• The Web Clearinghouse for Engineering and Computing Ethics

• ACM<SIG on Computers and Society

• The Online Ethics Center for Engineering and Science at Case Western University

• The Research Center on Computing & Society at Southern Connecticut State University

What you can do:Look up one or more of the organizations above. Become aware of the ethical issues computer scientists and engineers face. Know that these organizations may be resources for you to use in case of an ethical conflict. Think about becoming involved.

Teaching Professional Ethics in Computer Science and Information

Systems

The following is a list of listings of case studies relating to professional ethics and computer science or information systems:

• Online Ethics Center: Cases about Computers and Software

ComputingCases.org

(Adapted from the Internet)



Unit 6


Key to tasks 6.2. and 6.3. Discussion of some ethical problems:

Chairman:- Shall we get down to business? I have a great pleasure in opening the discussion. Are there any comments, opinions or questions to the speaker?... Prof. Hill, please.

Prof. Hill:- I’ve listened attentively to the presentation and I’m deeply impressed by the spiritual situation in the world. I want to ask Mr. Biletsky a question. In what way will your country try to get out of the troubles you’ve mentioned?

Prof. Biletsky:- This is a due question. You know that Ukraine has achieved democracy. This is an important first step in the improvement of society. But democracy, as wonderful as it is, is not enough. Democracy has not solved all the problems of America. I think you agree with me, Mr. Hill. There must be an accompanying predominant spiritual sense of purpose found in society. I would say that knowledge and appreciation of genuine spiritual values in a democratic society is the way of improving the spiritual situation. This is the policy of our country, and this is what we want to pass on to the next generation.

Peter Koval:- My name is Peter Koval, I am a student at Kyiv National University. As the young generation has been mentioned, I want to raise a question: What is the role of education in the humanization processes?

Chairman:- Who’d like to answer this question?... I give the floor to Dr. Fulier from Sorbonna University.

Dr.Fulier:- I would answer your question by Plato’s words: “If you ask what is the good of education I shall answer that education makes good men, and good men act nobly and conquer their enemies in battle, because they are good.” My friends, I want to warn you that the enemies are at the gates of our common home, they are alienation, illegal drugs, crime, injustice, apathy, and lack of moral purpose. Good education can conquer these enemies.

Olha Dolenko:- I’m Olha Dolenko, a post-graduate student at Lviv Polytechnic University. Dr.Fulier, could you enlarge on this question, please? How do you think moral knowledge is to be acquired? Can one person, a teacher, perhaps, help others to acquire it? And if so, in what way? By direct instruction? By good example? By advice? By reward and punishment?

Dr.Fulier:- Formation of human values in children and adults is a long and permanent process. The role of the family, the state, the school and the church are very important in moral training, as well as the role of arts, humanities, literature and music. The matter is that, first of all, the society should be moral. If it is so, there is nothing to be afraid of.


Professional ethics


249


Chairman: - Thank you. Unfortunately, our time is up. I think that the discussion was highly spirited. Many ideas have been expressed that will long occupy our minds and invite further studies. Let me thank you all for participation.

Key to tasks 6.4. and 6.5. Text “Global Warming and Greenhouse Effect”.

It is believed that human activities are responsible for the drastic changes in the Earth’s temperature causing global warming, holes in the ozone layer and major changes in climate patterns.

Ozone in the stratosphere shields the Earth from much harmful ultraviolet radiation.

Solar energy arrives in the form of short-wavelength radiation (high energy). But not all the solar energy is absorbed on the Earth’s surface. One third of the heat is reflected back out into space, in the form of long-wavelength infrared radiation (low energy). Two thirds of the solar energy reaching the Earth from the sun is trapped inside the atmosphere by gases which absorb it. This is called the “greenhouse” effect. Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, fluorocarbons and other gases in the atmosphere which trap solar energy, absorb and retain it are called “greenhouse gases”. Carbon dioxide releases from burning fossil fuels such as gas, coal and oil; solid waste, wood and wood products. Methane comes from domestic animals such as cows, landfills, rice farming, natural gas, oil and coal production, vegetation decay and transport. Sewage treatment plants may be a major source of nitrous oxide. Fluorocarbons rarely occur naturally. They are manufactured by humans for refrigeration and air-conditioning.

We need a greenhouse effect because it provides a blanket of warmth enveloping the Earth. Otherwise we would freeze! But as concentrations of greenhouse gases increase, more heat is being re-radiated back to the Earth thus increasing surface tempe­ratures.

Each year we add more than 30 billion tons of carbon dioxide to the air, 350 to 500 million tons of methane. The carbon dioxide we release today could still be trapping heat hundreds of years from now. Methane stays in the atmosphere for more than a decade, and each molecule of methane traps heat 20 times more effectively than a carbon dioxide molecule. Nitrous oxide which we add to the atmosphere 7 to 13 million tons a year stays there for more than a century and its molecule traps heat about 200 times more effectively than a carbon dioxide molecule. So greenhouse gases are greatly contributing to global effect the temperature of the Earth would be about zero degrees F (-18°C) instead of its present 57°F (14°C). Thus, the greenhouse effect is necessary to maintain the liquid state of water in the Earth’s biosphere, but things are getting a bit too warm.

Adanmoemi автентичт тексты використаю у тдручнику з навчальною, метою.




ENGLISH-UKRAINIAN VOCABULARY

 


 


abstract

abstract of a paper / report

accept

accommodate smth. to

according to / in accordance with

achieve

achievement

acquaint

get acquainted with

acquire

acquisition

advertise

advertisement/advert/ad

agree with

agreement

announce

announcement

annual

annually

applicant

application

apply

appreciate

appreciation

apprentice

apprenticeship

arrange

arrangement

assess

assist

attend a plenary meeting / session

award

awareness


А

аноташя, тези доповш

тези доновда

приймати

пристосовувати до

зпдно з, вщповщно до

досягати

досягнення

ознайомлювати

ознайомитись з

набувати (знания, навички, досвщ),

одержувати

набуття, одержання

рекламувати

оголошення, реклама

погоджуватись з

згода, угода

оголошувати

оголошення

ЩОР1ЧНИЙ

mopiHHO

кандидат, претендент 1. застосування, 2. заява 1. застосовувати, 2. звертатись до, по­дати заяву високо щнувати висока ощнка, розумшня учень

учтвство, навчання професп оргашзовувати, упорядковувати оргашзащя, домовлешсть, floroeip ощнювати допомагати

бути присутшм на пленарному засдатп нагороджувати усвщомлення, об1знашсть, знания



ban (n)

ban (v)

basics

be aware of

be based on

be concerned with

be engaged in

be in favour of

be intended for

be mistaken

benefit (n)

benefit (v)

brief

bulletin / notice board

calculate

calculation

capacity

carry out (on) certificate

certificated

certification

certified (document, product, specialist)

certify

chair (v)

chairperson / chairman / chairwoman

claim

claim one’s right to

clarify one’s point of view

classified ad

collaboration

to collaborate

collaborative (effort, work, project)

comment on


В

заборона

забороняти

основи

усвщомлювати

базуватися на

мати справу з, бути пов’язаним з

бути залученим

бути за (когось, щось)

призначатися, бути призначеним

помилятись

користь, вигода, прибуток

отримувати користь

стислий, короткий

дошка оголошень

С

обчислювати обчислення, шдрахунки об'ем, емшсть, потужшсть, сггро-можшсть

виконувати, проводити грамота, свщоцтво, довщка, сер­тификат, посвщка

дипломований; той, що мае вищу квал1ф1кащю

шдтвердження, сертификат^ зав1рений документ, сертифшований (товар), дипломований (спещалкт) п;дтверджувати, зав1ряти, серти-фжувати (прилад, товар тощо) головувати головуючий, -а

1. вимагати; 2. претендувати; 3. амер. заявляти, твердити заявити про CBoi права на щось роз’яснити свою точку зору оголошення про роботу сп1вроб1тництво, сп1впраця ствпрацювати

зроблений у cniBnpaui, групою людей коментувати



competitor

concise

conquer

conscience

consequence

consider

consideration

contribute to

contribution

cope with

countryman

craftsman

create

creation

creative

creatively

criterion (pi-ia)

cruel

cruelty

current (adj.)

current (n)

curricular activity

customer


суперник, конкурент чггкий, стислий завойовувати, гвдкоряти

COBiCTb, суМЛШНЯ

1. наслщок, результат; 2. висновок;

3. важливють, значения

розглядати, вважати

розгляд

робити внесок

внесок

впоратись

земляк

майстер, ремкник

творити, створювати

створення

творчий

творчо

критерш, Miprnio

1. жорстокий; 2. болюкий, тяжкий

жорстоюсть

поточний

струм

програмна даяльшсть

клкнт, покупець


D


damage (n)

damage (v)

danger

dangerous

data (pi of datum)

deadline

deal with

decide

decisiveness

defend

defender

defense

defensive

depletion

design

destroy

destruction


1. шкода; 2. пошкодження

завдавати збитив; пошкоджувати

небезпека

небезпечний, загрозливий

дат, шформащя

крайнш термш / строк

мати справу з, стосуватися

вир1шувати

ршучкть

захищати

захисник

захист

захисний

виснаження, вичерпування (запасов)

проектувати, планувати

руйнувати, знищувати

руйнування, знищення



develop

developer

development

device

devote

to be devoted to

discover

discovery

discuss

distinguish

distinguished

disuibute

do without

doubt (n)

doubt (v)


розвивати, -ся / розробляти

розробник

розвиток, розробка

прилад

присвячувати

бути вщданим, бути присвяченим

вщкривати

вщкриття

обговорювати

вщзначати, видшяти, розр1зняти

визначний, вщомий

розподшяти

обходитися без

сумшв

сумшватися


Е


earphones efficiency

efficient eliminate

elimination

emerge

emergence

emphasize

employ

employee

employer

employment

enclose

encourage

encouragement

enlarge on a problem

enrich

ensure

enterprise

entertainment

environment

equip


навушники

ефектившсть; тех. коефвдент корисноУ

дп

ефективний

1.усувати (помилки i т. т.); 2.3ни-

щувати

усунення

1.з’являтися, виходити; 2. виявлятися,

поява

шдкреслювати, робити наголос

найма™

службовець, прац1вник, робггаик

працедавець

забезпечення роботою, зашипеть,

працевлаштування

MicTHTH, покласти у конверт

заохочувати

заохочення

зупинитись на проблем! детальнее

збагачувати

забезпечувати, гарантувати

тдприемство

1.розвага;2. веч1рка

довкшля, оточення, середовище

обладнувати, забезпечувати



equipment

essential

establish / meet / miss the deadline for

doing something

examination board

exchange

experience

experienced

extensive

extracurricular activity


обладнання

важливий, ктотний

встановити крайнш термш / вкластися

в термш / не вкластися в термш

екзаменащйна комк1я

обмшюватись

ДОСВ1Д

досвщчений

широкий, просторий

позапрограмна, позааудиторна д1яль-

HiCTb


F


facilitate

fail to do something

field

fill in / complete a form in block letters

fruitful


полегшувати, сприяти

не зумгги / не змогти зробити щось

галузь, поле, сфера д1яльносп

заповнити бланк друкованими т-

терами

плцший


G


general / panel discussion

go on a business trip / scientific mission

grant a patent

greediness

guidance

under the guidance

guide


загальна дискуск / дискуем спеща-

nicTiB

i-хати у дшове / наукове в1дрядження

видати патент

жад1бшсть, ненажерливгсть

кер1вництво

шд кер1вництвом

керувати


Н


handle

handout

hardware

harmful

hold a post

hold a conference

hush up


оперувати, працювати з роздатковий матер1ал апаратне забезпечення шкщливий, згубний займати посаду проводи™ конференцию замовчувати



include increase indecision innovate

innovative

innovative technologies

innovacor

Instal',

installation

institution (n)

research institution

educational institution

institute (v)

instructions

to give instructions; td instruct

instructor

instructive

insurance

integral part

interrupt

introduction

invent

invention

inventive

inventor

investigate

investigation

fundamental investigations

to make / carry out / conduct invest-

tigations

investigative

investigator

invisible

invitation

invite

involve

involvement

issue

IT (information technologies)


I

охоплювати

збшынувати

нер1шучкть

впроваджувати Hoei перспективы wei,

методи, рашоналЬаторсыапропозшц!

рацюншпзаторський, новаторський,

шновацшний

перспективы технологи'

ращонгшзатор, новатор

встановлювати, монтувати

установка

заклад, оргашзацш, товариство

науково-дослцщий заклад

навчальний заклад

засновувати, вводити, започатковувати

настанови

давати настанови

шструктор, викладач (практик)

повчальний

страхування, забезпечення

невщ'емна частина

переривати

вступ

винаходити

винахщ

винахщливий

винахщник

дослщжувати

достижения

фундаментальш достижения

проводи™ достижения

дослщницький

дослщник

невидимий

запрошення

запрошувати

м1стити в co6i, залучати до

залучення

предмет обговорення, проблема

шформащйш технологи


J


judge judgement

justice


судити, виносити вирок (ршення) судження, думка, погляд 1хправедливкть; 2.законшсть, право-

суддя


L

 

legacy спадщина
legal законный, правовий
level р1вень
limit обмежувати
location of a conference / venue мюце проведения конференцп
  м
manage (to do smth.) змогги зробити
manifest 1.робити очевидним; 2. обнародувати;
  3. виявляти
manifestation прояв
manufacture виробляти
manufacturing виробництво, виробничий
master оволод1вати, опановувати
match (n) р1вня, пара
match (v) пщходити (до пари), бути вщповщним
mean (meant) означати, мати на уваз!
means (тж. як sg) 3aci6, cnoci6
measure вим1рювати
measurement вим1рювання
meet world standards вщповщати св1товим стандартам
merit варткть, заслуга, позитивна яюсть

N


noviciate, novitiate


випробувальний пер1од, учн1вство


О


obligatory

occupation

omit a passage / paragraph

opportunity

outstanding/prominent


обов’язковий

заняття, фах, рщзанять

оминати уривок / абзац

слушна нагода, сприятлива можливють

видатний


paper/work/project Р робота, доповщь, проект
course work / paper / project курсова робота (проект)
graduation paper / project дипломна робота (проект)
part and parcel невщ'емначастина
participant учасник
participate брати участь
participation участь
particular особливий
pay a fee сплачувати внесок
pay tribute вцщавати належне
perfect (adj) досконалий
perfect (v) вдосконалювати
perform виконувати, здшснювати
performance виконання, здшснення, робота
poach переманювати, тдбурювати
point of view точка зору
pollute забруднювати
pollution забруднення
portfolio портфолю
postgraduate асшрант
postgraduate course асшрантура
to take a postgraduate course вчитись в acnipaHTypi
postpone вщкладати
preliminary programme попередня програма
present представляти
presentation виступ, представления
presenter доповщач
prevent запобп-ати
process (v) обробляти, опрацьовувати, шддавати
  анал1зу
processing обробка, опрацювання
produce виробляти
production виробництво
prolong продовжувати
promote сприяти, стимулювати, заохочувати
promotion сприяння, стимулювання, заохочення;
  просування по служб!
prospective майбутнш, оч1куваний
prospects (pi) плани на майбутне, перспективи
prosper процвгеати
prosperity процв1тання

 

prosperous що процвггае, заможний
provide забезпечувати, надавати
purpose мета, щль, призначення
  Q
qualification квгшфшащя
qualified квгипфшований, компетентний
to qualify квал1фшувати, ощнювати
quantity величина, кшьюсть
questionnaire entry пункт анкети R галузь, сфера, царина
realm
receipt квитанщя
receive отримувати
recognition визнання
recognize визнавати
record (n) запис
record (v) записувати
recruit вербувати, наймати на роботу
reflect вщображати
register рееструвати,-ся
registration реестрац1я
relate to мати вщношення, стосуватися чогось
related to пов’язаний з
relation вщношення, зв’язок, залежшсть
relative вщносний
relatively вщносно
replace замшяти
report (n) доповщь, повщомлення, звк
report (v) доповщати, повщомляти, звпувати
reporter доповщач, репортер
require вимагати
requirement вимога
meet requirements вщповщати вимовам
research наукове дослщження
1. research associate; 2. research worker науковий сшвробггник
research institute науково-дослщний шститут
research institution науково-дослщний заклад
research methods метода досл1дження
research project науково-дослщний проект
research team / group трупа дослщншив

 

research work, R&D науково-дослщна робота
to do research проводити науково-досшдну роботу
researcher дослщник, науковий сшвробггаик
respective вщповщний
responsibility вщповщальнклъ, обов’язок
responsible for вдаовщальний за
resume, CV резюме, бюграфм
review (n) огляд, реферат
reviewfvj робити огляд
to make a review робити огляд, готувати реферат
reviewer оглядач, критик, рецензент, референт
revival вщродження
revive вщроджувати, -ся Sмасштаб Онапазон)
scale
schedule / timetable (n) розклад
schedule (v) призначати, включати до розкладу
according to the timetable за розкладом
science наука
science and engineering наука iTexHka
scientific науковий
scientific conference наукова конференция
scientific school наукова школа
scientific society наукове товариство
scientist вчений
search пошук
search engine пошуковий мехашзм
seek шукати, намагатися знайти
self-consciousness самосв1дом!сть
set the task ставити завдання
simulate моделювати
simulation моделюваняя
skill MaficTepHicTb, вм1ння
skillful майстерний
society сусшльство, товариство
software програмне забезпечення
solution вир;шення, розв’язання
solve вир1шувати, розв’язувати
source джерёло
speaker мовець, оратор
state-of-the-art найсучасшший piBem, розвитку
  технологи у певнш галуз1

 

submit подавати на розгляд
success ycnix
successful устшний
suggest пропонувати
suggestion пропозищя
summary короткий змют, резюме, анотащя
supervise керувати, наглядати
supervision кер1вни1Ггво, нагаяд
supervisor/ scientific adviser науковий кер1вник
survival виживання
survive пережига, витримати
swap-shop секцшне обговорення на конференцп
synchronous interpretation синхронний усний переклад т взяти слово, виступити
take the floor
technique техн1ка, техшчш прийоми
threat загроза
threaten погрожувати, загрожувати
to be against бути проти
train виховувати, навчати, готувати
training навчання, тренування
transfer (п) перемпцення
transfer (v) переносити

и


ultimate values up-to-date


ocHOBHi, первинш щннос-п сучасний


V


value

versatile

violate

violation

visual aids

vocation

vocational

voice one’s opinion on


цшшсть, важливють, мат. величина

багатогранний

Порушувати (закон i т. ш.)

порушення

унаочнення, наочш засоби

профес1я

професшний

висловити свою думку 3


w

wander from the subject under debate вщхилятися вад теми дебато

wisdom мудркть

working language робота мова



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