Text 1. MYKHAILO TUHAN-BARANOVSKY



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Text 1. MYKHAILO TUHAN-BARANOVSKY



Mykhailo Tuhan-Baranovsky was born on January 8, 1865 in the village of Soliane, in the province of Kharkiv in Ukraine. On graduating from the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics at Kharkiv University (1888), he studied political economy and statistics at the Faculty of Jurisprudence at Kharkiv University, passing the master’s examination, and completed his training as an economist with periods of study in St. Petersburg, Paris (1889), Moscow and London (1892). His first work “A Study of the Marginal Utility of Economic Goods” (1890), and above all his doctoral dissertation



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The Industrial Crises in Industrial England (1894), his masterpiece dedicated to the study of business cycles, gained him the position of assistant professor of political economy in the Faculty of Jurisprudence at St. Petersburg University (January 1895). However, Tuhan’s active participation in the debates of the Third Section of the Imperial Free Economic Society, of which he became director in 1896, and the editorial writings of the “Legal Marxists” of St. Petersburg led to the suspension of his nomination by the minister of public education until December 1905.

His fundamental work “The Russian Factory, Past and Present” (1898) and the subsequent translation of his major works into German, English, French and Spanish -among them, “The Theoretical Foundations of Marxism” (1905) and “Modem Socialism in its Historical Development” (1906) - made Tuhan “the most eminent” Slav economist of that period, and “the most important figure of international theoretical revisionism”. From 1905 onwards, finally distancing himself from Marxism, Tuhan worked with the daily newspaper of Russian cadets “Rech” and was recajled to the Faculty of Jurisprudence at St. Petersburg University as assistant professor. In 1913 he was appointed to the Chair of Political Economy. In spite of the merit of his teaching and scientific research, culminating in his “Foundations of Political Economy” (1909), a new veto by the minister forced him to resign, and from 1913 to 1917, he worked at the Department of Economics of the Imperial Polytechnic Institute in St. Petersburg.

Gradually coming to share the aspirations, ideals and political programmes of the Ukrainian national and cooperative movement - his “Social Foundations of Coope­ration” was published in 1916 - Tuhan left Petrograd for Kyiv in the summer of 1917; in August 1917 he took up the post of the Minister of Finance in the General Secretariat of the Ukrainian Central Rada, representing the Ukrainian Party of the Socialist Federalists. In 1918 he became Head and organizer of the Ukrainian Academy’s Third (Socio-Economic) Department and of the Institute*for the Study of Cycles attached to the Academy. Sent as an economic adviser with the Ukrainian delegation to the Paris Peace Conference on January 8, 1919, he died on a train at the railroad station in Oradne between Kyiv and Odesa.

(Taken from Selected Contributions of Ukrainian Scholars to Economics by I.S. Koropecky, published by Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 1984)

Text 2. ROALD HOFFMANN

Roald Hoffmann was born in 1937 in Zloczow, Poland (now Zolochiv, Ukraine). He immigrated to the United States with his family in 1949. He graduated from Columbia University (1958) and received his Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1962. He collaborated with Robert B. Woodward at Harvard during the next three years and then joined the Cornell University faculty in 1965.

Roald Hoffmann has made numerous contributions in the field of chemistry, most notably in the area of geometrical structure and reactivity of molecules. His con­tributions have earned him numerous honours, including the 1981 Nobel Prize in


Ukrainian names in world science



Chemistry shared with Kenichi Fukui (Japan). Hoffmann and his collaborator, R. B. Woodward, developed the Woodward-Hoffmann rules governing the course of certain chemical reactions based on the electronic structures of the reactants. Hoffmann undertook the research leading to his share of the prize when he and Woodward sought an explanation of the unexpected course taken by a reaction that Woodward and his colleagues had hoped to use in the synthesis of the complicated molecule of vitamin B. Hoffmann and Woodward discovered that many reactions involving the formation or breaking of rings of atoms take courses that depend on an identifiable symmetry in the mathematical descriptions of the molecular orbitals that undergo the most change. Their theory, expressed in a set of statements now called the Woodward-Hoffmann rules, accounts for the failure of certain cyclic compounds to form from apparently appropriate starting materials, though others are readily produced; it also clarifies the geometric arrangement of the atoms in the products formed when the rings in cyclic compounds are broken.

In addition to sharing the Nobel Prize, the American Chemical Society has honoured him with the Priestley Medal, the Arthur C. Cope Award in Organic Chemistry, and the American Chemical Society Award in Inorganic Chemistry. He received also Pimentel Award in Chemical Education, Award in Pure Chemistry, Monsanto Award, National Medal of Science. Hoffmann is currently professor of chemistry at Cornell University, focusing in the area of applied theoretical chemistry.

Roald Hoffmann has been very active in communicating.science to non-scientists, and he is also an accomplished poet and writer. He published two scientific-popular books: Chemistry Imagined: Reflections on Science (1993) and The Same and Not the Same (1995). In 1993, Hoffmann hosted a 26-segment television documentary on the Public Broadcasting Service entitled The World of Chemistry.

Roald Hoffmann became a prominent member of the Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences of America.

Text 3. HERBERT BROWN. NOBEL PRIZE IN CHEMISTRY (1979).

Autobiography

My parents, Charles Brovarnik and Pearl Gorinstein, were born in Zhytomyr in Ukraine and came to London in 1908 as part of the vast Jewish immigration in the early part of this century. They were married in London. In 1909 my sister, Ann, was born. I arrived on May 22, 1912. In June 1914 my father decided to join his mother and father and other members of his family in Chicago, much to the dismay of my mother, whose own family largely remained in England. My grandfather’s name had been anglicized to Brown, and that became our name. In the United States, my two sisters, Sophie and Riva, were born in 1916 and 1918.

My father had been trained as a cabinet maker, doing delicate inlaid work. However, he found little market for his skills in the U.S. and turned to carpentry. We lived in an apartment above the store and I attended the Haven School at Wabash and


по


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16th Street with predominantly black classmates. I did well in school and was advanced several times, graduating at 12. Indeed, I was offered, but refused, further advancement since I did not want to be in the same class with my sister, Ann.

On graduation, I went to Englewood High School on the South Side of Chicago. Unfortunately, my father became ill of some sort of infection and died in 1926. I left school to work in our store, I am afraid that I was not really interested in the business and spent most of my time reading. My mother finally decided that she would attend to the store and I should go back to school. Accordingly, I reentered Englewood in February 1929 and graduated in 1930. At Englewood I ran the humor column of the school paper and won a national prize.

We sold the store at that time. I had no hope of going on to college. However, this was the beginning of the Depression and I could find no permanent job. Studying appealed to me much more than the odd jobs I could find. I decided to go to college. I entered college intending to major in electrical engineering. I had heard that one could make a good living in that area. However, I took chemistry and became fascinated with that subject, and remained with chemistry thereafter. I had just completed one semester at Crane Junior College when it was announced in 1933 that the school was to be closed for lack of funds. I then went to night school at the Lewis Institute, taking one or two courses, financing myself by working as a part time shoe clerk.

I then heard that one of the instructors at Crane, Dr. Nicholas Cheronis, had opened his laboratory to several students, so that they could continue their studies on their own. I went there and grew to know and love a fellow student, Sarah Baylen. Sarah had been the brightest student in chemistry at Crane prior to my arrival. She has described ("Remembering HCB") how she initially "hated my guts." But since she could not beat me, she later decided to join me, to my everlasting delight.

In 1934 Wright Junior College opened its doors. We went there and nine of us graduated in 1935 as the first graduating class. In my yearbook Sarah predicted that I would be a Nobel Laureate!

I entered the University of Chicago in the fall (autumn) of 1935, accompanied by my girlfriend, Sarah. This was the time when the President of the University, Robert Maynard Hutchins, was arguing for the principle that students should be permitted to proceed as rapidly as possible. Indeed, at that time it cost no more to take ten courses than it did the usual three. I did so, and completed my junior and senior year in three quarters, receiving the ВSc in 1936.

I received my Ph.D. in 1938. Unfortunately (perhaps fortunately), I coulI cot find an industrial position. Professor M.S. Kharasch then offered me a position as a postdoctorate at a stipend of $1600 and my academic career was initiated. The following year Professor Schlesinger invited me to become his research assistant with the rank of instructor. Consequently, I am an unusual example of a chemist who ended up in academic work because he could not find an industrial position. ,

At that time one did not achieve tenure until after ten years. I had seen a number of individuals who had remained at Chicago as instructors for nine years without tenure


Ukrainian names in world science



and then had to find another position under severe pressure. I decided to avoid this situation. Accordingly, after four years I asked Professor Schlesinger for a decision as to my future in the Department. When he came back with the word that there was no future, I undertook to find another position.

Fortunately, Morris Kharasch had a good friend, Neil Gordon, the originator of the Gordon Research Conferences, who had given Morris Kharasch his first position at the University of Maryland back in 1920.) Neil Gordon was persuaded to give me a position at Wayne as Assistant Professor, preserving my academic career. I became Associate Professor in 1946, and was invited to Purdue in 1947 by the Head of the Chemistry Department, Henry B. Hass, as Professor of Inorganic Chemistry. In 1959 I became Wetherill Distinguished Professor and in 1960 Wetherill Research Professor. I became Emeritus in 1978, but continue to work with a large group of postdoctorates.

Originally my research covered physical, organic and inorganic chemistry and I took students in all three areas. However, as the Department became more organized into divisions, it became necessary to make a choice, and I elected to work primarly with coworkers in organic chemistry. In addition to my research program in the borane-organoborane area, my research program has involved the study of steric effects, the development of quantitative methods to determine steric strains, the examination of the chemical effects of steric strains, the non-classical ion problem, the basic properties of aromatic hydrocarbons, a quantitative theory of aromatic substitution, and the development of a set of electrophilic substitution constants, s+, which correlate aromatic substitution data and a wide variety of electrophilic reactions.

(Adapted from the Internet material)

APPENDIX. KEYS TO THE TASKS"

Key to task 3.3,1,

Heorhiy Vorony is widely known as one of the most talented mathematicians in the theory of numbers on the verge of the 19th - 20th centuries. The scientist managed to publish only 12 papers during his lifetime but each one was so important that it gave impulse to the development of new branches in mathematics.

Heorhiy Vorony was born in Poltava region in 1868. After finishing gymnasium he entered St. Petersberg University where he mastered mathematics and physics, and cherished a dream of his own discoveries. On receiving his Master’s degree Heorhiy Vorony was appointed to work in Warsaw University as professor of mathematics.



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Key to task 3.3.2.

The name of Myron Zarytsky, a brilliant mathematician, gifted and inspired educator is very little known in Ukraine. He was born into the family of a priest, in Temopil region in 1889.

Myron Zarytsky entered Vienna University and continued his studies at Lviv University. In Lviv the notable mathematician became a member of the Scientific Society named after T.Shevchenko. In Lviv he gained his Doctor of Philosophy degree and wrote about 20 scientific works. His activity at Lviv University, Lviv Polytechnic Institute and Uzhhorod University was intense and interesting.

Key to task 3.3.3.

Mykhailo Kravchuk is the author of over 180 works, among them 10 books are dedicated to different branches of mathematics. These research works enriched the world science and promoted the development of the first computer. The name of M.Kravchuk is well-known and world-famous in scientific community but nobody knew he was a Ukrainian. Full of energy, creative projects and intentions M. Kravchuk was exiled to Kolyma (Siberia) and he died before he was 50. His name was hushed up in Ukraine.

M. Kravchuk was born in Volyn’, in 1892. Being a man of extraordinary intelligence and culture, he became an associate professor at the age of 25; at 33 a member of the All-Ukrainian Academy of Sciences. M. Kravchuk worked in Kyiv University and maintained scientific and personal contacts with prominent mathematicians of the world.

Key to task 3.3.4.

The founder of mathematical culture in Ukraine, Volodymyr Levytsky was the first to write his scientific papers in his native language. He was the first to unite mathematicians of Ukrainian origin for carrying out research.

V. Levytsky collected and compiled a Ukrainian terminology dictionary in mathematics and physics, which was published in 1903. Scientific interests of V, Levytsky were wide and versatile: algebra, geometry, the history of mathematics, physics and astronomy. All his research and public activity was connected with the Scientific Society named after T.Shevchenko in Lviv, which he headed in 1932-1934. His articles were written in many languages: Ukrainian, Polish, German, French, Spanish and English.

Key to task 3.3.5.

Mykhailo Ostrohradsky deserves one of the most distinguished places in the history of the world mathematics. An outstanding talent, sharp intelligence, penetrating mind, high mathematical erudition, knowledge of modern natural sciences helped M. Ostrohradsky to make first-rate discoveries in many branches of mathematics and mechanics.


UKRAINIAN NAMES IN WORLD SCIENCE



M.Ostrohradsky was bom in Poltava region in 1801. His life was very interesting and difficult. As a young man M.Ostrohradsky wanted to become a military man. Yet, his uncle insisted on Mykhailo’s entering Kharkiv University. The University of Kharkiv, six years in Paris, where kOstrohradsky attended lectures of famous mathematicians, gave excellent results. The scientist wrote about 50 works devoted to different branches of mathematics and mechanics. He was acquainted with I. Kotliarevsky, T. Shevchenko, S. Hulak-Artemovsky, M. Lysenko and M. Maksymovych.

Key to task 3.17.



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