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The Institute of Civil and Environmental Engineering, one of the largest at our University, trains students in three directions of specialisation: Civil Engineering,.Water Resources, and Fire Safety. As the scope of civil engineering has become very broad, it involves many other professional areas, including law, ecology, public health, economics, management, finance, and other branches of engineering. Students of the Institute study a lot of different subjects: physics, mathematics, strength of materials, drawing, theoretical and applied mechanics, building materials, history, economics of building work, philosophy, a foreign language.

The direction Civil Engineering comprises such specialities as: Industrial and Civil Engineering, Urban Construction and Facilities, Technology of Building Struc­tures, Items (Products) and Materials, Motor-roads (Highways) and Aerodromes, Brid­ges and Vehicles Traffic Tunnels, Heat and Gas Supply and Ventilation.

The history of building extends as far back as that of civilization itself. Builders created seven wonders of the world. The 20th century rapid scientific and technological progress with a wide range of new building materials and advanced methods of construction, turned civil engineering into a broad professional field. The word “construction” is used in a general sense today to cover the erection and repair of all types of buildings, roads, bridges and other structures. The word “building” is mainly concerned with domestic dwellings, including small dwelling houses and blocks of flats, schools, hospitals, churches and office blocks, while “civil engineering” deals more with surrounding features (infrastructure) like bridges, roads, airports, water conduits, and power stations. Civil engineering projects are mostly on a greater scale and take longer to complete than the average building work.

Those who obtain the qualification of a civil engineer at our institute are engaged in housing construction, construction and reconstruction of plants, factories, mines, sports facilities, public and administrative buildings, supervising and managing the

Engineering profession

implementation of projects. Some of the graduates work at designing bureaux or educational establishments.

Automobile is one of the most efficient means of transport. To provide safe and quick transportation, a large network of highways is required, because roads ate blood vessels of the country, they bring everything required for people’s life, for regular work of industrial enterprises and agriculture. Not a single branch of national economy is able to exist without roads. Those who obtain the qualification of road engineers will be engaged in the development of modem complexes of engineering structures facilitating steady and speedy traffic, service facilities for passengers and drivers. As a highway complex includes first of all the road itself, petrol stations, motels, parking areas, bus stops and complicated engineering structures such as bridges, viaducts, tunnels and so on.

The direction Water Resources includes the speciality Water Supply and Disposal. It’s a speciality of ecological profile. To turn constructed buildings into homes and offices, people should provide them with heating, ventilation, water supply and sewerage. Water is vital for living beings. With the growth of population and development of industries, availability of fresh water has become an urgent problem. Governments adopt laws against environmental pollution. Students majoring in this field study water intake and distribution systems, hydraulics, and operation of water conduit and sewerage systems. Specialists in this field may work for water works, sanitary works, departments of the Ministry of Ecological Resources, designing institutes and building companies or public housing services. -

Task 1.53. Discuss the following questions in small teams, write down all the ideas and present them to the whole group after the discussion:

What do you know about your institute? What are your favorite subjects ? Why? Where would you like to work after graduating from the university?

Specialists in the field of Fire Safety possess knowledge necessary for protection of houses and other built environments against fire. They study refractory materials, fireproofing, and. fire-fighting devices and techniques. Graduates who gained this qualification can arrange fire protection and fire preventive maintenance of dwelling and industrial buildings. They can work for fire-fighting services, State fire inspection bodies, designing bureaux, research institutes and educational establishments


Task 1.54. Memorize the essential vocabulary and translate the sentences containing it:

1. authentic -справжнш, достов1рний, автентичний -genuine, true, reliable, e.g. The students were suggested to read the text containing the elements of authentic information.

2. forged- шдроблений, - an illegally copied (a document, a painting, a piece of paper money etc.) e. g. His passport proved to be a forged one.

3. authenticity- автентичшсть - the quality of being true or authentic, e. g. The results of these chemical tests have cast doubt on the authenticity of this painting.

4. forgery- щцробка - an illegally copied document, painting, a piece of money, etc., e. g. The painting is considered to be a very clever forgery.

5. archives(pi.) - apxiB - place for keeping public or government records; other historical records, e. g. Archives contain records which may be written or printed papers, pictures, photographs, films etc.

6. archivistapxieapiyc - a person in charge of archives, e. g. He has enough knowledge and abilities to make a good archivist.

7. deliver- проводи™, читати лекцн, курси - to utter, pronounce (a speech, a lecture etc.) to an audience, e. g. The Department of Ukrainian Histoiy delivers courses in the following subjects: History of Ukraine and its Sovereignty, Ukrainian and Foreign Culture, Science and Engineering History.

8. draw up (drew, drawn)- складати документ - to make a draft of a document, a plan etc., e. g. The document has been drawn up in accordance to the establlshed procedure.

9. drawing up- складання документу - the act of producing a document, a plan etc., e.g. Companies of different forms of property are to follow the same rules of documents drawing up and their registration.

10. examine- здшснювати nepeBipKy, експертизу - to look carefully and closely at, inspect in order to discover the facts, e. g. He is to examine the materials properly before coming to the final decision.

11. examination- перев1рка, експертиза - an inspection, testing of sth., e. g. Documents value examination requires a great deal of accuracy.

12. expert- експерт - someone whose knowledge or skill is specialized and profound, esp. as the result of much practical experience, e. g. He is a first-rate expert in the sphere of documents value examination.


13. file- пвдштги, прикласти до справи - to place a document with others so as to be available for reference, e. g. The secretary has already filed the documents.

14. file- годшита справа - a set of documents arranged one behind the other for ease of reference, e. g. The secretary came in holding a blue file.

15. further- додатковий, подальший - additional, more remote in time, e. g. Further education ensuring the Master’s degree can be obtained on the competitive rating grounds.

Engineering profession

16. the humanities- гуматтарш науки - studies (history, art, literature, classics etc.) emphasizing the cultural aspects of civilization, e. g. The humanities contribute a great deal to the development of the students.

17. introduce- запроваджувати, започатковувати - to bring into use or practice, e. g. In the 2000-2001 academic year a new speciality Documents and Informational Activity was introduced at the Department of Ukrainian History, Science and Engineering.

18. major- спещалізуватись - to study in greater size, to specialize in a certain subject, e. g. She majored in Public Relations at the university.

major- спещшшащя, основний предмет - an academic subject studied more extensively than others, e.g. What is his major ?

19. normative- нормативний - relating to a norm, setting a standard, e. g. Normative documents are considered to be a reliable source of information.

20. permanent- постшний - continuing or enduring without change, e. g. The most valuable documents need permanent storage..

21. post-graduate- асшрант - a student who continues his studies beyond the first degree, e. g. Post-graduates are the ablest students who continue their study after graduating from the university.

22. profound- глибокий, значний - very great, intense, deep, e. g. The students have all opportunities to obtain profound knowledge in general as well as in special subjects.

23. records- характеристика, особова справа - facts concerning the past performance of a person, e. g. He has excellent personal records from his previous job.

24. seal- печатка - a sign or a guarantee of authority, approval etc., e. g. He gave the document the seal of his consent.

25. sign- шдписувати - write one’s name on a document, letter etc. for official purposes to show that one agrees with its contents, e. g. The letter isn ’t signed so we don’t know who it’s by. Business letters should be signed in ink, clearly and legibly. signature- шдпис - person’s name written by himself, e. g. Her signature is almost illegible.

26. staff- персонал, штат - the personnel of an organization, e. g. Ukrainian Language and Business Ukrainian are taught by the teaching staff of the Ukrainian Language Department.

27. standard- стандарт - a norm to be followed, a necessary level or degree of sth., e. g. The main task of the course is acquiring practical skills in using state standards. standardize- стандартизувати - to make conform to a standard, e.g. You should standardize these papers, i. e. prepare them according to fixed norms.

28. store- зберігати - to accumulate and keep for future use, e. g. The most valuable information Ms been stored in the computer.

storage- збергання - accumulation, keeping, e. g. Our group got acquainted with classification of the documents, their permanent and temporary storage.

29. temporary- тимчасовий - lasting only for a short time, e. g. The new premises
were given into a company*s temporaiy usage.


30. unify- ушфкувати - to make one or become one, e. g. The system of classification
and coding of technical and economic information has been unified.

The main trends of documents unification and standardization are studied in the course of Business Correspondence.

31. value- щннють - usefulness, importance, e. g. These human values are held in high
esteem in every company.

value- оцшювати - to estimate the value of sth., e. g. She values the advice of her parents.

32. wide- spread- поширений - extended over a wide area, widely circulated, e. g. The Foreign Languages Department offers courses in the most wide-spread foreign languages.

33. would-be- майбутнш - desiring or aspiring to be, e. g. The would-be office work experts should take into account social-psychological aspects and professional ethics issues.

Task 1.55. Complete the words to match the definitions given:

1. genuine, true, reliable _ u t _e_ _ i _

2. to bring into use or practice _ n ♦___ d_c_

3. relating to a norm _o_m__iv_

4. continuing or enduring without change p___ m___ e _ t

5. very great, intense, deep p_o_o_n_

6. to accumulate and keep for future use о _ e

7. lasting for a short time _e____ o_ar_

8. to make or become one _n _f _

9. extended over a wide area w__e-_P:ea_

10. usefulness, importance v___ u _

Task 1.56. Match the following words with their definitions:

A. 1. archives; 2. to deliver; 3. to draw up; 4. to examine; 5. major; 6, records;
7. staff; 8. to file; 9. the humanities; 10, a post-graduate.

B. a) studies emphasizing the cultural aspects of civilization;

b) facts concerning the past performance of a person;

c) to make a draft of a document;

d) to inspect in order to discover the facts;

e) a place for keeping public or government records;

f) a student who continues his studies beyond the first degree;

g) to utter, to pronounce to an audience;

h) to place so as to be available for reference;

i) the personnel of an organization;

j) an academic subject studied more than others;

Engineering profession

Task 1.57. Read the text and render its content either in the form of a dialogue or an interview:

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